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Subject index

        Acinetobacter, in central venous catheter-related infections, 304–308
        Activated coagulation time, intraoperative, arterial vs. venous, 573–580
        Acupressure, wristbands for, for postoperative nausea and vomiting, 68–71
        Acute respiratory distress syndrome in off-pump CABG surgery, 491
        in severe chest trauma, extracorporeal lung assist for, 777–779
        Adhesion molecules, after CABG surgery, simvastatin effects on, 605–609
        Adrenal insufficiency, delayed-onset, postoperative, 80–81
        Age factors, in atrial fibrillation, after off-pump CABG surgery, 704–708
        Aggregometry, platelet, for platelet dysfunction assessment, 136–140
        Air embolism
        in cardiopulmonary bypass, 112–113
        cerebral, bispectral index value in, 82–84
        prevention of, carbon dioxide deairing in, 180–184
        Airway
        anomalies of, difficult intubation in, 610–612
        obstruction of, after lung resection, from subglottic granuloma, 479–481
        Albumin, for pump priming, vs. crystalloid, 429–437
        Aldosterone, heparin and, 96–97
        Aminocaproic acid, for blood loss prevention, in pediatric patients, 141–143
        Amiodarone
        for atrial fibrillation, after CABG surgery, 709–714
        multisystem organ failure related to, 366–374
        Amrinone, for postoperative care, in pediatric patients, 220
        Analgesia
        postoperative. See Postoperative pain
        for video-assisted thoracoscopy, 317–321
        Anaphylaxis, from aprotinin, 39S–40S
        Anemia, postoperative, treatment of, 59–63
        Anesthesia. See specific agents and procedures
        Aneurysm, aortic
        perioperative beta-blockade in, 7–13
        stent placement for, transesophageal echocardiography in, 466–468
        transmediastinal repair of, cerebrospinal fluid drainage catheters for, 624–627
        Angioplasty, coronary, brain natriuretic peptide and, 782–783
        Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, intraoperative, hemodynamic results of, 47–52
        Animal studies
        arrhythmias in magnesium deficiency, 313–316
        cardiac output measurement in one-lung ventilation, 190–193
        left ventricular pressure-area relationship indices, 415–422
        minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cardiopulmonary bypass, 620–623
        vena cava obstruction detection, 293–303
        Antithrombin III, heparin binding to, 93, 131–135
        Aorta
        aneurysm of
        perioperative beta-blockade in, 7–13
        stent placement for, transesophageal echocardiography in, 466–468
        transmediastinal repair of, cerebrospinal fluid drainage catheters for, 624–627
        atherosclerosis of, ultrasonography in, 715–718
        coarctation of
        coronary artery anomalous origin and, 327–331
        jet ventilation during, 207–209
        cross-clamping of, pulmonary artery perfusion in, 166–174
        dissection of, repair of, patent foramen ovale formation in, 763–764
        interruption of, in cardiopulmonary bypass, 469–471
        prosthetic valve dehiscence into, 812–813
        pseudoaneurysm of, echocardiography in, 527–528
        stent placement in, transesophageal echocardiography in, 466–468
        transit-time ultrasound of, in cardiac output measurement, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, 563–572
        Aortic root, perfusion of, for ventricular arrhythmias, after aortic valve replacement, 197–200
        Aortic valve
        bicuspid, sinus of Valsalva thrombosis with, 384–386
        papillary fibroelastoma of, echocardiography in, 114
        prosthetic, dehiscence of, aortic obstruction by, 812–813
        regurgitation of, brain natriuretic peptide and, 783
        replacement of
        atrial natriuretic peptide levels in, 30–33
        cerebral air embolism in, 82–84
        delayed-onset adrenal insufficiency in, 80–81
        gauze object left during, 242–244
        pulmonary artery catheter venous infusion port interruption in, 72–74
        refractory ventricular arrhythmias after, controlled aortic root perfusion for, 197–200
        stenosis of, brain natriuretic peptide and, 783
        Aprotinin
        for blood conservation, 24S–28S
        benefits of, 34S–36S
        clinical trials of, 24S–26S
        cost-effectiveness of, 26S–27S
        dose for, 25S
        heparin and, 38S–42S
        in liver transplantation, 31S–37S
        mechanisms of action of, 24S
        for orthopedic surgery, 29S–30S, 40S–41S
        safety of, 25S–26S, 33S–34S
        for cardiopulmonary bypass, stroke after, in pediatric patients, 194–196
        Argatroban, for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, 95
        Arrhythmias
        atrial
        after CABG surgery, 309–312, 704–708, 709–714
        in off-pump CABG surgery, 492–493
        intraoperative, 641–644
        in magnesium deficiency, 313–316
        prevention of, ischemic preconditioning in, 800
        ventricular
        after aortic valve replacement, controlled aortic root perfusion for, 197–200
        after CABG surgery, 366
        Arterial switch operation, postoperative care in, 219–220
        Arteries. See specific arteries
        Aspirin, platelet dysfunction due to, assessment of, 136–140
        Atenolol, perioperative, in aortic aneurysm surgery, cost-effectiveness of, 7–13
        Atherosclerosis, aortic, ultrasonography in, 715–718
        Atrial appendage thrombus, dislodgment of, in femoral embolectomy, 809–811
        Atrial fibrillation
        after CABG surgery, amiodarone and epidural analgesia and, 709–714
        during off-pump CABG surgery, 492–493, 704–708
        Atrial natriuretic peptide, measurement of, in valve replacement, 30–33
        Atrial septal defect
        brain natriuretic peptide and, 783
        emphysematous bullae with, simultaneous repair of, 632–636
        vena cava anomalies with, 332–335
        Atrial septectomy, caval inflow occlusion in, in pediatric patients, 144–147
        Atrial tachyarrhythmias, after CABG surgery, magnesium and sotalol effects on, 309–312
        Atrium
        left, pseudoaneurysm behind, 671–672
        myxoma of, cardiac arrest in, resuscitation in, 769–771
        Auditory-evoked potentials, midlatency, in sedation assessment, 559–562
        Autologous blood donation, preoperative, 6S–11S
        cell-washing systems for, continuous vs. discontinuous, 210–217
        for orthopedic surgery, 29S
        Awareness, anesthetic, pharmacogenetics and, 361
        Beta-adrenergic receptor, genetic variations in, 359–361
        Beta-blockers, perioperative
        for aortic aneurysm surgery, cost-effectiveness of, 7–13
        for noncardiac surgery, physician attitudes toward, 14–24
        Bicaval venous cannulation, obstruction detection in, in pediatric patients, 293–303
        Biomarkers
        in CABG surgery, 34–37
        in cerebral function monitoring, in pediatric cardiac surgery, 650–652
        Biopsy, lung, video-assisted thoracoscopy in, intercostal nerve block for, 317–321
        Bisoprolol, perioperative, in aortic aneurysm surgery, cost-effectiveness of, 7–13
        Bispectral index value
        in cerebral air embolism, 82–84
        in pediatric cardiac surgery, 647
        Biventricular assist support, for dilated cardiomyopathy, 772–774
        Blalock-Taussig operation, modified, end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring during, 152–155
        Bleeding, from coronary arteriotomy, in off-pump CABG surgery, 488
        Blood, for autologous use, 8S–10S
        Blood conservation
        aprotinin in, 24S–28S
        heparin and, 38S–42S
        in liver transplantation, 31S–37S
        in orthopedic surgery, 29S–30S, 40S–41S
        business plan for, 12S–14S
        in cardiac surgery, 18S–23S
        CEO perspective on, 15S–17S
        cost-effectiveness of, 26S–27S
        costs of, 22S
        in liver transplantation, 31S–37S
        national perspective on, 6S–11S
        in orthopedic surgery, 29S–30S, 40S–41S
        reasons for, 1S–5S
        risk-benefit analysis for, 14S
        staff acceptance of, 16S–17S
        Blood flow
        cerebral, in cardiopulmonary bypass, hemodilution and phenylephrine effects on, 423–428
        mesenteric, after cardiopulmonary bypass, Doppler studies of, 731–733
        pulmonary, measurement of, indirect Fick method for, 47–52
        velocity of, in left ventricular pressure-relationship indices measurement, 415–422
        Blood gas, monitoring of, during thoracoscopic surgery, 587–591
        Blood glucose control, in intensive care, 690–697
        Blood loss
        in off-pump CABG surgery, 492
        prevention of, epsilon aminocaproic acid vs. tranexamic acid in, in pediatric patients, 141–143
        Blood volume, in left ventricular pressure-relationship indices measurement, 415–422
        Brain
        air embolism in, bispectral index value in, 82–84
        blood flow in, in cardiopulmonary bypass, hemodilution and phenylephrine effects on, 423–428
        functional monitoring of, in pediatric surgery, 645–656
        ischemia of, in bicaval venous obstruction, detection of, 293–303
        oxygen saturation in, neuropsychologic dysfunction and, 552–558
        transfusion effects on, 235
        Brain natriuretic peptide
        in coronary angioplasty, 782–783
        in heart failure
        diastolic, 780–782
        therapeutic, 784–785
        in heart transplantation candidates, 782
        in left ventricular volume overload, 784
        in right ventricular pressure overload, 783
        in valve surgery, 783
        Bronchi, rupture of, in endotracheal intubation, 228–233
        Bupivacaine
        for intercostal nerve block, for video-assisted thoracoscopy, 317–321
        interpleural, for post-thoracotomy pain, 461–465
        Business plan, for blood conservation, 12S–14S
        CABG surgery. See Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
        Calcium, ionized, concentration of, coagulation and, 581–586
        Cancer
        cells of, removal of, from cell-washing autotransfusion systems, 214–215
        heparin action in, 96
        Candida, in central venous catheter-related infections, 304–308
        Capillary leak syndrome, postoperative, 222–223
        Carbon dioxide
        in cardiac output measurement, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, 563–572
        for deairing, in air embolism prevention, 180–184
        end-tidal, monitoring of, in systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt insertion, 152–155
        Cardiac arrest
        in left atrial myxoma, resuscitation in, 769–771
        in prosthetic aortic valve dehiscence, 812–813
        Cardiac output, measurement of
        in CABG surgery, off-pump, 43–46
        before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, methods for, 563–572
        continuous, methods for, 185–189
        indirect Fick method for, 47–52
        in one-lung ventilation, 190–193
        Cardiomyopathy, dilated, treatment of, in pediatric patients, 772–774
        Cardioplegia, blood for, salvage application of, in intraoperative ventricular fibrillation, 641–644
        Cardiopulmonary bypass
        activated coagulation time in, arterial vs. venous, 573–580
        air embolism in, 112–113
        aortic interruption during, 469–471
        aprotinin in, stroke after, in pediatric patients, 194–196
        atrial natriuretic peptide levels in, 30–33
        bicaval venous cannulation in, obstruction detection in, 293–303
        cardiac biomarker release in, 34–37
        cardiac output measurement before and after, 563–572
        cerebral blood flow and metabolism in, hemodilution and phenylephrine effects on, 423–428
        cerebral function monitoring in, 645–656
        C-reactive protein kinetics after, in pediatric patients, 160–165
        deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in, femoral-to-radial arterial pressure gradient in, 175–179
        duration of, kidney failure risk and, 442–445
        extubation timing after, pain assessment in, 64–67
        heparin in, resistance development in, 131–135
        isoflurane in, minimum alveolar concentration and, 620–623
        kidney failure after, 442–445
        mesenteric blood flow after, Doppler studies of, 731–733
        for mitral valve replacement, in pregnancy, 339–343
        multisystem organ failure after, 366–374
        myocardial protection in. See Myocardial protection
        in narcolepsy, anesthesia safety in, 201–203
        platelet dysfunction in, heparin and, 93–94
        procalcitonin kinetics after, in pediatric patients, 160–165
        pulmonary artery perfusion during, importance of, 166–174
        pulmonary artery pressures after, milrinone and nitric oxide effects on, in pediatric patients, 156–159
        pump priming in, albumin vs. crystalloid for, 429–437
        quinaprilat in, hemodynamic results of, 47–52
        rewarming garment for, in pediatric patients, 148–151
        separation from
        inotrope use in, 401–403, 404–408
        unsuccessful, 242–244
        in sickle cell trait, exchange transfusion requirements in, 663–667
        for simultaneous atrial septal defect and emphysematous bullae repair, 632–636
        superior vena caval partial occlusion during, 472–474
        CardioThoracic Systems coronary stabilizer, 487
        Carotid artery(ies)
        endarterectomy of
        myocardial ischemia in, risk factors for, 288–292
        shunting in, 375–383
        thrombosis of, after cardiopulmonary bypass, with aprotinin, in pediatric patients, 194–196
        Catheter(s)
        central venous. See Central venous catheter
        cerebrospinal fluid, in transmediastinal repair of aortic aneurysm, 624–627
        epidural, hematoma from, 759–762
        multiperforated, for carbon dioxide deairing, 180–184
        pulmonary artery. See Pulmonary artery catheter
        Caval inflow occlusion technique, for congenital heart disease repair, 144–147
        Cavopulmonary anastomosis, superior vena caval partial occlusion during, 472–474
        Cell-washing systems, for autotransfusion, continuous vs. discontinuous, 210–217
        Central venous catheter
        infections due to, prospective study of, 304–308
        mediastinal misplacement of, 75–77
        in persistent left superior vena cava, 529–531
        placement of, measurement differences and, 446–450
        Central venous pressure
        in fluid management, in liver transplantation, 438–441
        vs. peripheral venous pressure, patient position and, 446–450
        Cervical necrotizing fasciitis, vacuum-assisted closure for, 336–338
        Chest radiography, exterior epidural connector rings showing on, 673–674
        Chest trauma, pumpless extracorporeal lung assist in, 777–779
        Children. See Pediatric patients
        Circulating-water rewarming, for pediatric patients, 148–151
        Circulatory arrest, deep hypothermic, femoral-to-radial arterial pressure gradient in, 175–179
        Cisapride, postoperative, for pediatric patients, 222–223
        Coagulation
        intraoperative assessment of, 573–580
        ionized calcium concentration and, 581–586
        in off-pump CABG surgery, 492
        Coarctation, aortic
        coronary artery anomalous origin and, 327–331
        jet ventilation during, 207–209
        Cognitive dysfunction, in off-pump CABG surgery, 489–491
        Cohn Stabilizer, for off-pump CABG surgery, 487–488
        Color Doppler studies, in patent foramen ovale, 725–730
        Complement, release of, from cell-washing autotransfusion systems, 214
        Complications, perioperative, NHBLI recommendations on, 1–6
        Computed tomography, in pseudoaneurysm from pulmonary artery catheter, 668–670
        Congenital anomalies, difficult intubation in, 610–612
        Congenital heart disease
        bicaval venous cannulation in, obstruction detection in, 293–303
        caval inflow occlusion technique for, in pediatric patients, 144–147
        heart block, pacemaker implantation for, 628–629
        postoperative intensive care for, in pediatric patients, 218–227
        pulmonary artery shunt insertion in, end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring during, 152–155
        pulmonary hypertension in, brain natriuretic peptide and, 783, 784
        repair of
        cerebral function monitoring in, 645–656
        ketorolac for, 454–457
        superior vena caval partial occlusion during, 472–474
        Congestive heart failure
        brain natriuretic peptide and, 780–787
        in pregnancy, mitral valve replacement for, 339–343
        Conservation, blood. See Blood conservation
        Constant-flow ventilation, in postoperative care, in pediatric patients, 221
        Continuous autotransfusion system, 210–217
        complement release in, 214
        cytokine release in, 214
        fat elimination in, 214
        leukocyte quality in, 212–214
        platelet quality in, 211–212
        principles of, 210
        red cell quality in, 211
        tumor cell removal in, 214–215
        Contractility, left ventricular blood flow velocity and, 415–422
        Contusion, lung, pumpless extracorporeal lung assist in, 777–779
        Coronary artery(ies)
        angioplasty of, brain natriuretic peptide and, 782–783
        anomalous origin of
        with aortic coarctation, 327–331
        in left sinus of Valsalva, 788–798
        Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
        adhesion molecules after, simvastatin effects on, 605–609
        anesthesia induction in, remifentanil vs. fentanyl for, 263–268
        aortic pseudoaneurysm after, 527–528
        atrial fibrillation in, amiodarone and epidural analgesia and, 709–714
        atrial tachyarrhythmias after, magnesium and sotalol effects on, 309–312
        brain natriuretic peptide and, 782–783
        cardiac biomarker release in, 34–37
        cerebral oxygen saturation in, neurologic dysfunction and, 552–558
        diclofenac after, 742–747
        electrocardiographic changes after, 38–42
        emboli in, 545–547, 548–551
        endothelin production in, off-pump vs. conventional, 25–29
        endotracheal intubation in, stress response to, 275–280
        extubation after, vs. anesthesia type, 613–619
        glycemic control after, 690–697
        inflammatory response in, proprofol effects on, 592–604
        inotropic agents after, 401–403, 404–408
        ischemic preconditioning for, 799–805
        kidney dysfunction in, 492, 545–547, 548–551
        multisystem organ failure after, 366–374
        myocardial protection in. See Myocardial protection
        in narcolepsy, anesthesia safety in, 201–203
        off-pump, 486–505
        anastomosis quality in, 493–494
        anesthesia for, 488–489
        for anomalous coronary artery correction, 788–798
        approach to, 487
        arteriotomy bleeding in, 488
        atrial fibrillation in, 492–493, 704–708
        blood loss in, 492
        cardiac biomarker release in, 34–37
        cardiac output monitoring during, 43–46
        cardiovascular dysfunction in, 491–492
        coagulation disorders in, 492
        cost savings with, 493
        duration of stay and, 493
        electrocardiographic changes after, 38–42
        endothelin production in, 25–29
        exposure for, 487
        future of, 496
        hemodynamic instability in, 488
        high thoracic epidural anesthesia for, 256–262
        in high-risk patients, 494
        historic background of, 486–487
        indications for, 488
        intrathecal morphine for, 451–453
        kidney dysfunction in, 492
        limitations of, 495–496
        mortality in, 493
        myocardial protection in, 488
        neurocognitive effects of, 489–491
        outcome of, 495
        patient-controlled analgesia for, 755–758
        pulmonary dysfunction in, 491, 698–703
        quality of life considerations in, 494–495
        reappraisal of, 253–255
        stabilization in, 487–488
        stroke in, 489–491
        systemic impact of, 489–495
        systemic inflammatory response in, 489
        transfusion requirements for, 492
        oxycodone during and after, 748–754
        patent foramen ovale diagnosis during, 101–106
        perioperative enoximone in, 409–414
        pulmonary artery pseudoaneurym after, computed tomography in, 668–670
        pulmonary dysfunction in, 698–703
        sheared catheter wire in, 765–766
        ventricular pseudoaneurysm after, 671–672
        in women, 344–352
        long-term mortality in, 347
        morbidity in, 347–348
        research on, 348–350
        short-term mortality in, 345–347
        Corticosteroids, preoperative, delayed-onset adrenal insufficiency despite, 80–81
        Cost(s)
        of blood conservation, 22S
        of off-pump CABG surgery, 493
        of perioperative complications, NHBLI recommendations on, 1–6
        of transfusions, 2S–3S, 15S
        Cost-effectiveness
        of blood conservation, 26S–27S
        of perioperative beta-blockade, 7–13
        C-reactive protein, kinetics of, after cardiopulmonary bypass, in pediatric patients, 160–165
        Creatinine, elevation of, after CABG surgery, vs. emboli count, 548–551
        Creutzfeld-Jacob disease organisms, new variant, in blood supply, 1S–2S
        Crystalloid, for pump priming, vs. albumin, 429–437
        Cyanosis, pulmonary artery shunt insertion in, end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring during, 152–155
        Cytochrome P450 family, pharmacogenetics of, 357–359
        Cytokines, release of
        in CABG surgery, propofol effects on, 592–604
        from cell-washing autotransfusion systems, 214
        intraoperative, quinaprilat effects on, 47–52
        in myocardium, sevoflurane effects on, 269–274
        Danaparoid, for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, 95
        Deairing, carbon dioxide for, 180–184
        Decision modeling, of perioperative beta-blockade strategies, in aortic aneurysm surgery, 7–13
        Desflurane
        for cardiac pheochromocytoma resection, 630–631
        for ischemic preconditioning, 803
        Diabetes mellitus
        CABG surgery in, glycemic control in, 690–697
        cardiac surgery in, kidney failure risk in, 442–445
        Diastolic dysfunction, brain natriuretic peptide and, 780–782
        Diclofenac, after CABG surgery, 742–747
        Dilated cardiomyopathy, treatment of, in pediatric patients, 772–774
        Discontinuous autotransfusion system, 210–217
        complement release in, 214
        cytokine release in, 214
        fat elimination in, 214
        leukocyte quality in, 212–214
        platelet quality in, 211–212
        principles of, 210
        red cell quality in, 211
        tumor cell removal in, 214–215
        Diuretics
        for liver transplantation, 438–441
        postoperative, for pediatric patients, 222
        DNA analysis, in pharmacogenetics, 354–355
        Dobutamine
        for cardiopulmonary bypass separation, 404–408
        left ventricular pressure-relationship indices and, 415–422
        Dopamine
        for cardiopulmonary bypass separation, 404–408
        for postoperative care, in pediatric patients, 220
        Doppler studies
        esophageal, in continuous cardiac output measurement, 185–189
        in mesenteric blood flow alterations, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 731–733
        in patent foramen ovale, 725–730
        transcranial, in cerebral function monitoring, in pediatric cardiac surgery, 647–648
        Down syndrome, difficult intubation in, 610–612
        Ductus arteriosus, patent, interruption of, in cardiopulmonary bypass, 469–471
        Echocardiography
        in aortic pseudoaneurysm, 527–528
        in left ventricular pressure-relationship indices measurement, 415–422
        transesophageal. See Transesophageal echocardiography
        Edema
        postoperative, in pediatric patients, 222
        pulmonary, in off-pump CABG surgery, 491
        Editorials
        blood glucose control, 687–689
        cardiopulmonary bypass separation, 401–403
        Electrocardiography
        after CABG surgery, 38–42
        in general anesthesia, with cardiovascular disease, 281–287
        Electroencephalography, in cerebral function monitoring, in pediatric cardiac surgery, 647
        Embolectomy, femoral, atrial appendage thrombosis dislodgment in, transesophageal echocardiography in, 809–811
        Embolism
        air. See Air embolism
        in CABG surgery, 545–547, 548–551
        iliac artery, from sinus of Valsalva thrombus, 384–386
        pulmonary, removal of, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in, femoral-to-radial arterial pressure gradient in, 175–179
        Emergency surgery, bloodstream infections in, 304–308
        Emphysematous bullae, atrial septal defect with, simultaneous repair of, 632–636
        Endarterectomy, carotid
        myocardial ischemia in, risk factors for, 288–292
        shunting in, 375–383
        Endothelin, in CABG surgery, off-pump vs. conventional, 25–29
        Endotracheal intubation
        difficult, in pediatric patients, 610–612
        double-lumen, tracheobronchial rupture from, 228–233
        extubation in
        vs. anesthesia type, 613–619
        timing of, postoperative pain and, 64–67
        stress in, laryngoscopy vs. laryngeal mask airway for, 275–280
        Enflurane, for ischemic preconditioning, 803
        Enoximone, for CABG surgery, 409–414
        Enterobacter, in central venous catheter-related infections, 304–308
        Epidural analgesia and anesthesia
        for atrial fibrillation, after CABG surgery, 709–714
        hematoma from, 759–762
        for off-pump CABG surgery, 256–262
        thoracic, neurologic deficits due to, 512–520
        during and after thoracotomy, 317–321, 458–460
        Epinephrine
        for cardiopulmonary bypass separation, 404–408
        for postoperative care, in pediatric patients, 220
        Epsilon aminocaproic acid, for blood conservation, 38S
        in pediatric patients, 141–143
        Erythropoietin
        for postoperative anemia, 59–63
        for preoperative autologous blood donation, 6S–7S, 29S
        Escherichia coli, in central venous catheter-related infections, 304–308
        Esmolol, perioperative, in aortic aneurysm surgery, cost-effectiveness of, 7–13
        Esophageal Doppler studies, for continuous cardiac output measurement, 185–189
        Esophagectomy, left lower lobe collapse after, ventilation for, 482–485
        Esophagus, tear of, in transesophageal echocardiography, 78–79
        Exchange transfusions, in sickle cell trait, for cardiopulmonary bypass, 663–667
        Extracorporeal lung assist, for blunt trauma, 777–779
        Extubation
        in off-pump CABG surgery, intrathecal morphine effects on, 451–453
        timing of
        vs. anesthesia type, 613–619
        postoperative pain and, 64–67
        Fasciitis, necrotizing, vacuum-assisted closure for, 336–338
        Fat, removal of, from cell-washing autotransfusion systems, 214
        Femoral embolectomy, atrial appendage thrombus dislodgment in, transesophageal echocardiography in, 809–811
        Femoral-to-radial arterial pressure gradient, in deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, 175–179
        Fentanyl
        interpleural, for post-thoracotomy pain, 461–465
        patient-controlled, for off-pump CABG surgery, 755–758
        vs. remifentanil, for induction, in cardiac disease, 263–268
        Fibroelastoma, papillary, of aortic valve, 114
        Fick technique, indirect, for pulmonary blood flow measurement, 47–52
        Fluid management
        in liver transplantation, 438–441
        postoperative, in pediatric patients, 222–223
        Fontan-type operations, postoperative care in, 224–225
        Foramen ovale, patent
        intraoperative diagnosis of, 101–106
        pulmonary artery catheter for, 763–764
        transesophageal echocardiography in, 725–730
        Foreign objects, left in valve replacement, 242–244
        Free radicals, in CABG surgery, propofol effects on, 592–604
        Furosemide, postoperative, for pediatric patients, 222
        Gas, blood, monitoring of, during thoracoscopic surgery, 587–591
        Gas-diffuser device, for carbon dioxide deairing, 180–184
        Gender differences. See also Women
        in kidney failure, after cardiac surgery, 442–445
        in pharmacogenetics, 355
        General anesthesia
        for off-pump CABG surgery, 488–489
        high thoracic epidural anesthesia with, 256–262
        QT dispersion in, in peripheral vascular disease and silent myocardial ischemia, 281–287
        Genetic factors, in anesthesia. See Pharmacogenetics
        Glucose control, in intensive care, 690–697
        Glycocalicin, heparin and, 93–94
        Glycoproteins, platelet, heparin and, 93–94
        Granuloma, subglottic, after lung resection, 479–481
        Halothane
        arrhythmias due to, in magnesium deficiency, 313–316
        left ventricular pressure-relationship indices and, 415–422
        Heart
        myxoma of, atrial, cardiac arrest in, resuscitation in, 769–771
        pheochromocytoma of, resection of, 630–631
        rupture of, in anesthesia induction, 767–768
        transplantation of, brain natriuretic peptide and, 782
        univentricular, brain natriuretic peptide and, 783, 784
        Heart block, congenital, pacemaker implantation for, 628–629
        Heart failure
        brain natriuretic peptide and, 780–787
        in pregnancy, mitral valve replacement for, 339–343
        Hematocrit, in transfusion decision making, 234–241
        Hematoma, from thoracic epidural analgesia, 759–762
        Hemodilution
        in cardiopulmonary bypass, cerebral blood flow and, 423–428
        for preoperative autologous blood donation, 7S–8S
        Hemodynamics
        in endotracheal intubation, induction effects on, 263–268
        intraoperative, quinaprilat effects on, 47–52
        in liver transplantation, 438–441
        in off-pump CABG surgery, 488
        support of, for postoperative care, in pediatric patients, 219–221
        Heparin, 93–100
        activated coagulation time measurement with, 573–580
        aldosterone and, 96–97
        antithrombin III and, 93
        chemical structure of, 93
        inflammation and, 95–96
        lipid metabolism and, 97
        malignancy and, 96
        metabolism and, 97
        osteoporosis and, 97
        platelets and, 93–94
        preoperative, resistance development in, 131–135
        resistance to, 129–135
        thrombin and, 93
        thrombocytopenia induced by, 94–95
        thyroid hormones and, 97
        Histamine, release of, in CABG surgery, oxycodone and, 748–754
        Hyperglycemia, control of, in intensive care, 690–697
        Hyperkalemia, heparin-induced, 96–97
        Hypertension, pulmonary
        brain natriuretic peptide and, 783
        lung transplantation for, severe intraoperative hypoxemia in, 204–206
        milrinone and nitric oxide effects on, after cardiopulmonary bypass, in pediatric patients, 156–159
        sildenafil with nitric oxide for, 775–776
        Hyperthermia, malignant, pharmacogenetics of, 355–356
        Hyperventilation therapy, in postoperative care, in pediatric patients, 221
        Hypothermia, cerebral, monitoring of, in pediatric cardiac surgery, 646–647
        Hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, circulating-water rewarming garment for, in pediatric patients, 148–151
        Hypoxemia, in single-lung transplantation, 204–206
        Iliac artery, embolism in, from sinus of Valsalva thrombus, 384–386
        Indirect Fick technique, for pulmonary blood flow measurement, 47–52
        Indomethacin, after thoracotomy, 458–460
        Induction, in cardiac disease, remifentanil vs. fentanyl for, 263–268
        Infants. See Pediatric patients
        Infarction
        mesenteric, surgery for, prognostic factors in, 734–741
        myocardial. See Myocardial infarction
        Infections, central venous catheter-related, prospective study of, 304–308
        Inflammation
        in CABG surgery
        off-pump vs. conventional, 25–29
        propofol effects on, 592–604
        heparin and, 95–96
        intraoperative quinaprilat for, hemodynamic results of, 47–52
        Inflow occlusion, for congenital heart disease repair, 144–147
        Inotropic agents
        for CABG surgery, 409–414
        for cardiopulmonary bypass separation, 401–403, 404–408
        Insufflation, carbon dioxide, in air embolism prevention, 180–184
        Insulin, for glycemic control, in intensive care, 690–697
        Integrins, heparin and, 95
        Intensive care
        glycemic control in, 690–697
        for pediatric patients, 218–227
        antidiuretics in, 222
        anti-inflammatory drugs in, 222
        fluid management, 222–223
        gastrointestinal interventions in, 222–223
        inhaled nitric oxide in, 218–219
        mechanical ventilation in, 221
        pharmacologic hemodynamic support in, 219–221
        thyroid hormones in, 222
        in univentricular physiology, 223–224
        personnel directing, 521–526
        Intercellular adhesion molecule, after CABG surgery, simvastatin effects on, 605–609
        Intercostal nerve block, for video-assisted thoracoscopy, 317–321
        Interleukin(s), in CABG surgery, propofol effects on, 592–604
        Interleukin-6, release of, in myocardium, sevoflurane effects on, 269–274
        Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation
        bloodstream infections in, 304–308
        kidney failure risk with, 442–445
        Intrapulmonary shunt, measurement of, indirect Fick method for, 47–52
        Intubation, endotracheal. See Endotracheal intubation
        Iron hydroxide sucrose complex, intravenous, for postoperative anemia, 59–63
        Ischemia
        mesenteric, surgery for, prognostic factors in, 734–741
        myocardial. See Myocardial ischemia
        Isoflurane
        for CABG surgery, extubation time with, 613–619
        for ischemic preconditioning, 803
        minimum alveolar concentration of, in cardiopulmonary bypass, 620–623
        Jugular bulb oximetry, in cerebral function monitoring, in pediatric cardiac surgery, 648
        Jugular vein, left internal, pseudoaneurysm of, from venipuncture, 806–808
        Ketobemidone, for postoperative pain, extubation timing and, 64–67
        Ketorolac, for postoperative pain, in congenital heart surgery, 454–457
        Kidney, dysfunction/failure of
        in CABG surgery, 366–374, 545–547, 548–551
        off-pump, 492
        after cardiac surgery, incidence and risk of, 442–445
        Laryngeal mask airway and laryngoscopy, stress response in, 275–280
        Laser revascularization
        percutaneous, vs. transmyocardial laser revascularization, 87
        transmyocardial, review of, 85–92
        Lepirudin, for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, 95
        Letters to the editor
        abdominal wall mucormycosis after heart transplantation, 822–823
        atrial septal defect vs. patent foramen ovale, 824
        combined transesophageal echocardiography and laryngeal mask airway, 395–396
        correlation of bispectral index with tet spells, 682–683
        defective triple-lumen catheter, 680–681
        endothelin release after off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 680
        esophageal Doppler monitoring in off-pump surgery, 539–541
        heparin reversal in coronary artery bypass surgery, 394–395
        high thoracic epidural anesthesia for coronary artery bypass surgery, 392–394
        inadvertent high dose epinephrine administration, 121
        liver transplantation anesthesia, 825–826
        massive epistaxis from nasopharyngeal probe, 123–124
        nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with hemophilia A, 819
        paravalvular abscess after aortic valve replacement, 820–821
        propofol infusion into cardiopulmonary bypass pump, 122–123
        pyruvate-fortified cardioplegia, 537–539
        recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy after esophagectomy, 822
        venous air embolism, 681–682
        Leukocytes, quality of, from cell-washing autotransfusion systems, 212–214
        Levosimendan, for dilated cardiomyopathy, 772–774
        Lidocaine, epidural, after thoracotomy, 458–460
        Lipid metabolism, heparin and, 97
        Lipid peroxidation, in CABG surgery, propofol effects on, 592–604
        Lipoproteins, heparin and, 97
        Lithotomy position, vs. peripheral and central venous pressures, 446–450
        Liver
        dysfunction of, after CABG surgery, 366–374
        transplantation of
        blood conservation in, 31S–37S
        fluid management in, 438–441
        Lobectomy, for living-related lung transplantation, 506–511
        Lung
        biopsy of, video-assisted thoracoscopy in, intercostal nerve block for, 317–321
        blood flow in, measurement of, indirect Fick method for, 47–52
        dysfunction of, in CABG surgery, 491, 698–703
        emphysematous bullae in, atrial septal defect with, simultaneous repair of, 632–636
        extracorporeal assist for, in blunt trauma, 777–779
        perfusion of, importance of, 166–174
        resection of, subglottic granuloma after, 479–481
        transplantation of
        intraoperative hypoxemia during, 204–206
        living-related, 506–511
        Mac-1, heparin and, 95
        Mad cow disease organisms, in blood supply, 1S–2S
        Magnesium
        for atrial tachyarrhythmias, after CABG surgery, 309–312
        deficiency of, arrhythmias in, during anesthesia, 313–316
        Malignant hyperthermia, pharmacogenetics of, 355–356
        Malondialdehyde, in CABG surgery, propofol effects on, 592–604
        Mediastinum
        central venous catheter placement in, 75–77
        necrotizing fasciitis of, vacuum-assisted closure for, 336–338
        Medivent RTX respirator, for left lower lobe collapse, after esophagectomy, 482–485
        Mesenteric blood flow, after cardiopulmonary bypass, Doppler studies of, 731–733
        Mesenteric infarction, surgery for, prognostic factors in, 734–741
        Metabolism, drug, genetic variations in. See Pharmacogenetics
        Metastasis, heparin action in, 96
        Methylprednisolone, postoperative, for pediatric patients, 222
        Metoprolol, perioperative, in aortic aneurysm surgery, cost-effectiveness of, 7–13
        Milrinone
        for cardiopulmonary bypass separation, 404–408
        for pediatric patients, 220
        pulmonary artery pressure effects of, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 156–159
        Mitral valve
        regurgitation of, brain natriuretic peptide and, 783
        replacement of
        atrial natriuretic peptide levels in, 30–33
        cardiopulmonary bypass separation after, 404–408
        gauze object left during, 242–244
        left atrial thrombus formation after, 637–640
        in pregnancy, 339–343
        surgery on, kidney failure risk in, 442–445
        Monitoring, in carotid endarterectomy, 375–383
        Morphine, for off-pump CABG surgery
        intrathecal, 451–453
        patient-controlled, 755–758
        Mortality
        in CABG surgery, in women, 345–348
        in mesenteric infarction, 734–741
        in off-pump CABG surgery, 493
        Multidrug resistance transporter, genetic variations in, 359
        Multiperforated catheter, for carbon dioxide deairing, 180–184
        Multisystem organ failure, after CABG surgery, 366–374
        Myocardial infarction
        in aortic aneurysm surgery, beta-blockers for, 7–13
        in noncardiac surgery, beta-blockers for, 14–24
        ventricular rupture in, in anesthesia induction, 767–768
        Myocardial ischemia
        in CABG surgery
        enoximone for, 409–414
        off-pump, 491
        for preconditioning, 799–805
        silent, general anesthesia in, QT dispersion in, 281–287
        Myocardial protection
        enoximone for, 409–414
        ischemic preconditioning for, 799–805
        in off-pump CABG surgery, 488
        sevoflurane for, 269–274
        Myocarditis, treatment of, in pediatric patients, 772–774
        Myxoma, atrial, cardiac arrest in, resuscitation in, 769–771
        Nadoparin, for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, 95
        Narcolepsy, cardiac surgery in, anesthesia safety in, 201–203
        National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute (NHLBI), perioperative medicine recommendations of, 1–6
        Natriuretic peptide, brain. See Brain natriuretic peptide
        Nausea and vomiting, postoperative, acupressure wristbands for, 68–71
        Near-infrared spectroscopy, in cerebral function monitoring, in pediatric cardiac surgery, 648–649
        Necrotizing fasciitis, vacuum-assisted closure for, 336–338
        Nesiritide, for heart failure, 784–785
        Neurologic complications
        in CABG surgery
        off-pump, 489–491
        prevention of, aortic atherosclerosis detection for, 715–718
        in cerebral oxygen desaturation, 552–558
        in thoracic epidural supplementation, 512–520
        Neurologic function, monitoring of, in pediatric patients, 645–656
        biochemical markers in, 650–652
        bispectral index monitor in, 647
        electroencephalography in, 647
        jugular bulb oximetry in, 648
        multimodality, 652–653
        near-infrared spectroscopy in, 648–649
        temperature measurement, 646–647
        transcranial Doppler studies in, 647–648
        NHLBI (National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute), perioperative medicine recommendations of, 1–6
        Nitric oxide
        inhaled, with sildenafil, for pulmonary hypertension, 775–776
        for postoperative care, in pediatric patients, 218–219
        pulmonary artery pressure effects of, after cardiopulmonary bypass, in pediatric patients, 156–159
        Nitroglycerin, for liver transplantation, 438–441
        Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, after CABG surgery, 742–747
        Norepinephrine, for liver transplantation, 438–441
        Norwood operation, postoperative care in, 223–224
        Octopus Stabilization System, for off-pump CABG surgery, 487
        Off-pump CABG surgery. See Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, off-pump
        One-lung ventilation, cardiac output measurement in, 190–193
        OPCAB. See Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, off-pump
        Orthopedic surgery
        blood conservation in, 29S–30S, 40S–41S
        with cardiovascular disease, general anesthesia in, 281–287
        Osteoporosis, heparin-induced, 97
        Outcomes, of perioperative beta-blockade, in aortic aneurysm surgery, 7–13
        Oximetry, jugular bulb, in cerebral function monitoring, in pediatric cardiac surgery, 648
        Oxycodone, during and after CABG surgery, 748–754
        Oxygen saturation
        cerebral, neuropsychologic dysfunction and, 552–558
        monitoring of, in systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt insertion, 152–155
        Pacemaker, for congenital heart block, 628–629
        Pain, postoperative. See Postoperative pain
        Papillary fibroelastoma, of aortic valve, 114
        Paracetamol, after CABG surgery, 742–747
        Paratrend blood gas monitoring system, during thoracoscopic surgery, 587–591
        Partial rebreathing, in cardiac output measurement, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, 563–572
        Patent ductus arteriosus, interruption of, in cardiopulmonary bypass, 469–471
        Patent foramen ovale
        intraoperative diagnosis of, 101–106
        pulmonary artery catheter for, 763–764
        transesophageal echocardiography in, 725–730
        Patient-controlled analgesia, for off-pump CABG surgery, 755–758
        Pediatric patients
        absent right superior vena cava with persistent left superior vena cava in, 332–335
        aortic coarctation repair in
        with coronary artery anomalous origin, 327–331
        jet ventilation during, 207–209
        bicaval venous cannulation in, obstruction detection in, 293–303
        blood loss prevention in, epsilon aminocaproic acid vs. tranexamic acid for, 141–143
        cardiopulmonary bypass in
        aortic interruption during, 469–471
        procalcitonin and C-reactive protein kinetics after, 160–165
        pulmonary artery pressures after, milrinone and nitric oxide effects on, 156–159
        cavopulmonary anastomosis in, superior vena caval partial occlusion during, 472–474
        congenital heart disease in
        caval inflow occlusion technique for, 144–147
        repair of, postoperative ketorolac for, 454–457
        dilated cardiomyopathy in, treatment of, 772–774
        heart block in, pacemaker implantation for, 628–629
        hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in, rewarming garment for, 148–151
        intubation of, difficult, 610–612
        postoperative intensive care for, 218–227
        pulmonary hypertension in, sildenafil with nitric oxide for, 775–776
        stroke in, after cardiopulmonary bypass with aprotinin, 194–196
        Perioperative medicine, NHBLI recommendations on, 1–6
        Peripheral vascular disease, general anesthesia in, QT dispersion in, 281–287
        Peripheral venous pressure, vs. central venous pressure, patient position and, 446–450
        Peroxidation, lipid, in CABG surgery, propofol effects on, 592–604
        Persistent left superior vena cava, central venous catheter in, 529–531
        Pharmacogenetics, 353–365
        allele frequencies in, 355
        of beta-adrenergic receptor, 359–360
        of cytochrome P450 family, 357–359
        gender differences in, 355
        gene structure and, 353–354
        genetic variation and, 354
        in malignant hyperthermia, 355–356
        of multidrug resistance transporter, 359
        nomenclature of, 355–357
        polymorphism-drug metabolism phenotype and, 355
        in pseudocholinesterase deficiency, 356–357
        testing in, 354–355
        Phenylephrine
        in cardiopulmonary bypass, cerebral blood flow and, 423–428
        for liver transplantation, 438–441
        Pheochromocytoma, cardiac, resection of, 630–631
        Phosphodiesterase inhibitors
        for CABG surgery, 409–414
        for postoperative care, in pediatric patients, 220
        Platelets
        aggregometry of, for platelet dysfunction assessment, 136–140
        cardiopulmonary bypass effects on, pump priming fluid and, 429–437
        deficiency of, heparin-induced, 94–95
        dysfunction of
        aspirin-induced, 136–140
        heparin-induced, 93–94
        quality of, from cell-washing autotransfusion systems, 211–212
        Plateletworks analyzer, for platelet dysfunction assessment, 136–140
        Pleura, biopsy of, video-assisted thoracoscopy in, intercostal nerve block for, 317–321
        Pleural space, anesthetic administration into, for post-thoracotomy pain, 461–465
        Pleurectomy, video-assisted thoracoscopy in, intercostal nerve block for, 317–321
        Position, patient, vs. peripheral and central venous pressures, 446–450
        Post cardiopulmonary bypass myocardial dysfunction, enoximone for, 409–414
        Postoperative pain
        in CABG surgery
        diclofenac and paracetamol for, 742–747
        off-pump, patient-controlled analgesia for, 755–758
        oxycodone for, 748–754
        epidural analgesia for, neurologic deficits due to, 512–520
        extubation timing and, 64–67
        thoracic epidural analgesia for, atrial fibrillation and, 709–714
        in thoracotomy
        epidural local anesthetics for, 458–460
        intercostal nerve block vs. morphine for, 317–321
        interpleural bupivacaine with fentanyl for, 461–465
        in video-assisted thoracoscopy, 317–322
        Prednisolone, postoperative, for pediatric patients, 222
        Prednisone, preoperative, delayed-onset adrenal insufficiency despite, 80–81
        Procalcitonin, kinetics of, after cardiopulmonary bypass, in pediatric patients, 160–165
        Prone position, vs. peripheral and central venous pressures, 446–450
        Propofol
        for CABG surgery
        extubation time with, 613–619
        lipid peroxidation and inflammatory response effects of, 592–604
        safety of, in narcolepsy, 201–203
        Proteus, in central venous catheter-related infections, 304–308
        Pseudoaneurysm
        aortic, echocardiography of, 527–528
        left internal jugular vein, from venipuncture, 806–808
        pulmonary artery, from catheter, computed tomography in, 668–670
        ventricular, behind left atrium, 671–672
        Pseudocholinesterase deficiency, 356–357
        Pulmonary artery
        perfusion of, importance of, 166–174
        shunt insertion in, end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring during, 152–155
        Pulmonary artery catheter
        gravity-driven fluid infusions through, interruption of, 72–74
        guided insertion of, transesophageal echocardiography in, 658–662
        for patent foramen ovale reduction, 763–764
        pseudoaneurym due to, computed tomography in, 668–670
        Pulmonary artery pressure, milrinone and nitric oxide effects on, after cardiopulmonary bypass, in pediatric patients, 156–159
        Pulmonary artery thermodilution, for cardiac output measurement
        continuous, 185–189
        in one-lung ventilation, 190–193
        Pulmonary blood flow, measurement of, indirect Fick method for, 47–52
        Pulmonary edema, in off-pump CABG surgery, 491
        Pulmonary embolism, removal of, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in, femoral-to-radial arterial pressure gradient in, 175–179
        Pulmonary fibrosis, living-related lung transplantation in, 506–511
        Pulmonary hypertension
        brain natriuretic peptide and, 783, 784
        lung transplantation for, severe intraoperative hypoxemia in, 204–206
        postoperative, in pediatric patients, 218–219
        sildenafil with nitric oxide for, 775–776
        Pulse contour analysis, for continuous cardiac output measurement, 185–189
        QT dispersion, in general anesthesia, with cardiovascular disease, 281–287
        Quality of life, in off-pump CABG surgery, 494–495
        Quinaprilat, intraoperative, hemodynamic results of, 47–52
        Rebreathing, partial, in cardiac output measurement, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, 563–572
        Red blood cells, quality of, from cell-washing autotransfusion systems, 211
        Remifentanil
        for cardiac pheochromocytoma resection, 630–631
        vs. fentanyl, for induction, in cardiac disease, 263–268
        patient-controlled, for off-pump CABG surgery, 755–758
        safety of, in narcolepsy, 201–203
        Resistance, heparin, 129–130
        Respiratory disorders, in off-pump CABG surgery, 451–453, 491
        Resuscitation
        in atrial myxoma, 769–771
        in cardiac rupture, 767–768
        Revascularization. See also Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
        laser, transmyocardial, review of, 85–92
        percutaneous, vs. transmyocardial laser revascularization, 87
        Rewarming, circulating-water garment for, in pediatric patients, 148–151
        Risk assessment, perioperative, NHBLI recommendations on, 1–6
        S-100 protein, in cerebral function monitoring, in pediatric cardiac surgery, 650–652
        Sedation, assessment of, midlatency auditory-evoked potentials in, 559–562
        Selectins
        after CABG surgery, simvastatin effects on, 605–609
        heparin and, 95–96
        Sepsis, after cardiopulmonary bypass, in pediatric patients, 160–165
        Septectomy, atrial, caval inflow occlusion in, in pediatric patients, 144–147
        Sevoflurane
        arrhythmias due to, in magnesium deficiency, 313–316
        for CABG surgery, extubation time with, 613–619
        for ischemic preconditioning, 803–804
        for myocardial protection, 269–274
        Shoulder pain, after thoracotomy, epidural analgesia for, 458–460
        Shunt
        brain natriuretic peptide and, 784
        in carotid endarterectomy, 375–383
        intrapulmonary, measurement of, indirect Fick method for, 47–52
        Sickle cell trait, cardiopulmonary bypass in, exchange transfusion requirements in, 663–667
        Sildenafil, with nitric oxide, for pulmonary hypertension, 775–776
        Simvastatin, adhesion molecule effects of, after CABG surgery, 605–609
        Sinus of Valsalva
        right anomalous coronary artery originating in, 788–798
        thrombosis of, in bicuspid aortic valve, 384–386
        SonoSite ultrasound device, in aortic atherosclerosis, 715–718
        Sotalol, for atrial tachyarrhythmias, after CABG surgery, 309–312
        Spectroscopy, near-infrared
        in cerebral function monitoring, in pediatric cardiac surgery, 648–649
        for obstruction detection, in bicaval venous cannulation, 293–303
        Stabilization, for off-pump CABG surgery, 487–488
        Staphylococcus, in central venous catheter-related infections, 304–308
        Stent, aortic, placement of, transesophageal echocardiography in, 466–468
        Stress, in endotracheal intubation, laryngoscopy vs. laryngeal mask airway for, 275–280
        Stroke
        in carotid artery thrombosis, after cardiopulmonary bypass, with aprotinin, in pediatric patients, 194–196
        in off-pump CABG surgery, 489–491
        prevention of, in pediatric cardiac surgery, neuromonitoring for, 645–656
        Stroke work, left ventricular blood flow velocity and, 415–422
        Subglottic granuloma, after lung resection, 479–481
        Superior vena cava, obstruction of, in cannulation, detection of, 293–303
        Supine position, vs. peripheral and central venous pressures, 446–450
        Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
        after CABG surgery, 366–374
        after cardiopulmonary bypass, in pediatric patients, 160–165
        intraoperative, quinaprilat effects on, 47–52
        in off-pump CABG surgery, 489
        Systemic vascular resistance, intraoperative, quinaprilat effects on, 47–52
        Temperature, cerebral, monitoring of, in pediatric cardiac surgery, 646–647
        Thermodilution
        in cardiac output measurement, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, 563–572
        pulmonary artery, for cardiac output measurement
        continuous, 185–189
        in one-lung ventilation, 190–193
        Thoracic epidural anesthesia
        for atrial fibrillation, after CABG surgery, 709–714
        hematoma from, 759–762
        high, for off-pump CABG surgery, 256–262
        Thoracoscopy
        blood gas monitoring during, 587–591
        video-assisted, intercostal nerve block for, 317–321
        Thoracotomy, pain after
        epidural local anesthetics for, 458–460
        intercostal nerve block vs. morphine for, 317–321
        interpleural bupivacaine with fentanyl for, 461–465
        Thrombin, heparin binding to, 93
        Thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced, 94–95
        Thromboelastography, in ionized calcium vs. coagulation studies, 581–586
        Thromboendarterectomy, pulmonary, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in, femoral-to-radial arterial pressure gradient in, 175–179
        Thrombosis
        atrial appendage, dislodgment of, in femoral embolectomy, 809–811
        carotid artery, after cardiopulmonary bypass, with aprotinin, in pediatric patients, 194–196
        left atrial, after mitral valve replacement, 637–640
        sinus of Valsalva, in bicuspid aortic valve, 384–386
        Thyroid hormones
        heparin and, 97
        postoperative, for pediatric patients, 222
        Trachea
        intubation of. See Endotracheal intubation
        nonpenetrating traumatic transection of, 475–478
        rupture of, in endotracheal intubation, 228–233
        Tranexamic acid, for blood loss prevention, in pediatric patients, 141–143
        Transcranial Doppler studies, in cerebral function monitoring, in pediatric cardiac surgery, 647–648
        Transesophageal echocardiography
        in anomalous coronary artery correction, 788–798
        in aortic stent placement, 466–468
        in aortic valve mass, 114
        in atrial appendage thrombus dislodgment, 809–811
        in CABG surgery
        in cardiac output monitoring, 43–46
        sheared catheter wire detection by, 765–766
        in cardiopulmonary bypass separation, 401–403, 404–408
        intraoperative
        gauze object found in, 242–244
        in noncardiac surgery, utility of, 107–111
        in left atrial thrombus, 637–640
        in patent foramen ovale, 101–106, 725–730
        probe of, esophageal tear from, 78–79
        in pulmonary artery catheter guided insertion, 658–662
        in tricuspid regurgitation, 719–724
        in ventricular pseudoaneurysm, 671–672
        Transfusion(s)
        blood conservation and. See Blood conservation
        blood shortages for, 1S–2S
        cell-washing autotransfusion systems for, continuous vs. discontinuous, 210–217
        costs of, 2S–3S, 15S
        demand for, 2S
        efficacy of, 3S–4S
        errors in, 15S
        exchange, in sickle cell trait, for cardiopulmonary bypass, 663–667
        hematocrit criteria for, 234–241
        in liver transplantation, 438–441
        for off-pump CABG surgery, 492
        pathogens in, 1S
        refusal of, by Jehovah’s Witness patient, 765–766
        risks of, 234–235
        Transmyocardial laser revascularization, 85–92
        angiogenesis in, 86
        background of, 85–86
        candidates for, 87
        clinical trials of, 87–90
        lasers for, 86
        myocardial necrosis in, 86
        vs. percutaneous revascularization, 87
        placebo effect in, 86
        techniques for, 86–87
        Transplantation
        heart, brain natriuretic peptide and, 782
        liver
        blood conservation in, 31S–37S
        fluid management in, 438–441
        lung
        intraoperative hypoxemia during, 204–206
        living-related, 506–511
        Transpulmonary aortic thermodilution, for cardiac output measurement, in one-lung ventilation, 190–193
        Trauma
        chest, pumpless extracorporeal lung assist in, 777–779
        tracheal, management of, 475–478
        Trendelenburg position, vs. peripheral and central venous pressures, 446–450
        Tricuspid valve, regurgitation of, transesophageal echocardiography in, 719–724
        Triiodothyronine, postoperative, for pediatric patients, 222
        Troponin I, release of
        in CABG surgery, 34–37, 409–414
        off-pump, 491
        in ischemic preconditioning, 803
        Tube(s), endotracheal. See Endotracheal intubation
        Tumor cells, removal of, from cell-washing autotransfusion systems, 214
        Tumor necrosis factor-α, release of, in myocardium, sevoflurane effects on, 269–274
        Turbidometric platelet aggregometry, for platelet dysfunction assessment, 136–140
        Ultrasonography
        in aortic atherosclerosis, 715–718
        in cardiac output measurement, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, 563–572
        in mesenteric blood flow alterations, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 731–733
        Univentricular heart
        brain natriuretic peptide and, 783, 784
        surgery for, postoperative care in, 223–225
        Vacuum-assisted closure, for necrotizing fasciitis treatment, 336–338
        Valve
        aortic. See Aortic valve
        mitral. See Mitral valve
        Vascular cell adhesion molecule, after CABG surgery, simvastatin effects on, 605–609
        Vasopressin, for postoperative care, in pediatric patients, 220
        Vena cava
        anomalies of, absent right superior vena cava with persistent left superior vena cava in, 332–335
        obstruction of, detection of, 293–303
        occlusion of, in atrial septectomy, 144–147
        superior
        persistent, central venous catheter in, 529–531
        unintentional partial occlusion of, in cavopulmonary anastomosis, 472–474
        Venipuncture, of left internal jugular vein, pseudoaneurysm formation in, 806–808
        Venous infusion port, for pulmonary artery catheter, gravity-driven fluid infusions through, interruption of, 72–74
        Venous pressure, peripheral, vs. central venous pressure, patient position and, 446–450
        Ventilation
        constant-flow, in pediatric patients, 221
        after esophagectomy, for left lower lobe collapse, 482–485
        jet, during aortic coarctation repair, 207–209
        mechanical, in postoperative care, in pediatric patients, 221
        one-lung, cardiac output measurement in, 190–193
        with pumpless extracorporeal device, for blunt trauma, 777–779
        volume-targeted, in pediatric patients, 221
        Ventricle(s)
        left
        pressure overload of, brain natriuretic peptide and, 784
        pressure-area relationship indices of, 415–422
        pseudoaneurysm of, behind left atrium, 671–672
        right, pressure overload of, brain natriuretic peptide and, 783
        rupture of, in anesthesia induction, 767–768
        Ventricular arrhythmias, after aortic valve replacement, controlled aortic root perfusion for, 197–200
        Ventricular assist support, for dilated cardiomyopathy, 772–774
        Ventricular fibrillation
        after CABG surgery, 366
        intraoperative, salvage with secondary blood cardioplegia, 641–644
        Ventricular septal defect
        brain natriuretic peptide and, 783, 784
        pulmonary hypertension in, sildenafil with nitric oxide for, 775–776
        repair of, aortic interruption during, 469–471
        Video-assisted thoracoscopy, intercostal nerve block for, 317–321
        Virginia Commonwealth University, blood conservation program of, 18S–23S
        Visual analog scale, for pain assessment, extubation timing and, 64–67
        Volume-targeted ventilation, in pediatric patients, 221
        Vomiting, postoperative, acupressure wristbands for, 68–71
        Warming garment, circulating-water, for pediatric patients, 148–151
        Women, CABG surgery in, 344–352
        long-term mortality in, 347
        morbidity in, 347–348
        preoperative presentation of, 344–345
        research on, 348–350
        short-term mortality in, 345–347
        Wristbands, acupressure, for postoperative nausea and vomiting, 68–71