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Subject index

        ABIOMED AB5000 ventricle, intraoperative off-bypass management of, 76–78
        Acetaminophen
        intravenous, for postoperative pain, in CABG surgery, 306–309
        with thoracic epidural anesthesia, for thoracotomy, 475–478
        Acid-base management, at body temperature extremes, fentanyl pKa and, 759–762
        Activated partial thromboplastin time, volume expander effects on, 358–361
        Acute respiratory distress, transesophageal echocardiography in, 242–249
        Adenosine, for myocardial protection, in off-pump CABG surgery, 672
        Afibrinogenemia, cardiac surgery in, 109–117
        Air embolism, ventricular, after cardiac surgery, 406–408
        Airway
        foreign body removal from, in pediatric patients, 90–92
        obstruction of
        cystic mediastinal mass aspiration for, 781–784
        in jugular venous puncture, 659–660
        off-pump CABG surgery with subtotal thyroidectomy in, 79–82
        Albuminuria, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 188–192
        Analgesia, postoperative. See Postoperative pain
        Anesthesia
        epidural. See Epidural anesthesia
        fast-track. See Fast-track anesthesia
        general, for CABG surgery
        fast-track, 49–53
        off-pump, 32–38
        Aneurysm
        aortic, repair of
        cerebrospinal fluid drainage during, 392–399
        diastolic function during, 165–172
        retrograde cerebral perfusion during, 650–653
        atrial septal, transesophageal echocardiography in, 146–149, 529–538
        endovascular repair of, anesthesiologist needed for
        evidence against, 806–809
        evidence for, 802–805
        Angioplasty
        carotid, with stenting, for stroke prevention, 539–541
        coronary, cardiopulmonary bypass for, 501–504
        Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, for diastolic dysfunction, in elderly persons, 231–234
        Animal studies
        inflammatory response in cardiopulmonary bypass, 488–493
        myocardial calcium cycling, 340–344
        Anticoagulants, preoperative, risk/benefit of, 1–3, 768–771
        Antifibrinolytic agents, for thoracic aortic surgery, 453–458
        Aorta
        aneurysm of, repair of
        cerebrospinal fluid drainage during, 392–399
        diastolic function during, 165–172
        endovascular, anesthesiologist needed for, 802–805, 806–809
        retrograde cerebral perfusion during, 650–653
        cross-clamping of
        in aneurysm repair, diastolic function and, 165–172
        release of, pacing electrocardiography after, 810–811
        dissection of, paroxysmal sympathetic storms after, 654–655
        surgery on
        antifibrinolytic use in, 453–458
        with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, outcomes of, 446–452
        sepsis after, immunoglobulins for, 440–445
        Aortic valve
        graft for, thrombosis of, in pregnancy, 222–224
        prosthetic, intra-annular leak of, 691–692
        regurgitation of, after left ventricular assist device placement, 409–410
        replacement of, autologous transfusions for, 589–596
        stenosis of, with patent ductus arteriosus, 785–786
        surgery on, vs. analgesia type, 176–181
        Apolipoprotein E, in cardiac surgery, polymorphisms of, 382, 385
        Arterial switch operations, outcome of, 322–328
        Arteries. See specific arteries
        Aspiration, of cystic mediastinal mass, for airway compression, 781–784
        Atrial fibrillation
        in CABG surgery, magnesium supplementation for, 723–729
        after cardiac surgery, in elderly persons, 182–187
        in cardiac surgery, genetic factors in, 384
        after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, for thoracic aortic surgery, 446–452
        Atrial muscle, contractility of, remifentanil effects on, 763–767
        Atrial myxoma, infection of, septic shock in, 508–511
        Atrial septal aneurysm, transesophageal echocardiography in, 146–149, 529–538
        Atrial septal defects, closure of
        autologous transfusions for, 589–596
        cardiopulmonary bypass in, in moyamoya disease, 499–500
        mini-extracorporeal circulation for, 656–658
        Atrioventricular block, complete, pacemaker implantation for, in pediatric patients, 212–216
        Atrium, coronary artery fistula with, transesophageal echocardiography in, 777–780
        Axillary artery, cannulation of, for cardiopulmonary bypass, blood pressure monitoring in, 665–666
        Bacteremia, after CABG surgery, transfusions and, 430–434
        Balloon, intra-aortic. See Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation
        Bartter’s syndrome, cardiac surgery in, 373–376
        Beta-blockers
        perioperative, late outcomes and, 237–241
        for vascular surgery with positive preoperative stress tests, 494–498
        Bispectral index, for isoflurane monitoring, in cardiopulmonary bypass, 485–487
        Bleeding
        in afibrinogenemia, cardiac surgery in, 109–117
        gastrointestinal, in transesophageal echocardiography, 141–146
        in mediastinoscopy, 678–683
        risk of, postoperative
        anticoagulant decisions and, 1–3
        enoxaparin-induced, 4–10
        subarachnoid, in aortic aneurysm repair, 650–653
        Blood loss, in cardiopulmonary bypass, hemostatic factors levels and, 459–467
        Blood pressure monitoring
        after cardiac surgery, methods for, 746–750
        in cardiopulmonary bypass, with axillary artery cannulation, 665–666
        Blood transfusions. See Transfusion(s)
        Body temperature, vs. fentanyl pKa, 759–762
        Brachial artery catheter, for cardiac output monitoring, in off-pump CABG surgery, 160–164
        Brain, retrograde perfusion of, in aortic aneurysm repair, 650–653
        Bronchoscopy
        in foreign body removal, 90–92
        laser treatment with
        in bronchoscopy suite, 118–120
        in operating room, 121–122
        CABG surgery. See Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
        Calcium channel blockers, for myocardial protection, in off-pump CABG surgery, 670
        Calcium cycling, in myocardium, anesthesia effects on, 340–344
        Capillary permeability, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 188–192
        Cardiac catheterization, EMLA cream for, in pediatric patients, 642–645
        Cardiac index, normobaric hyperoxia effects on, after CABG surgery, 173–175
        Cardiac output, monitoring of
        after cardiac surgery, methods for, 746–750
        in off-pump CABG surgery, 160–164
        Cardiac surgery. See also specific procedures
        caudal anesthesia for, in pediatric patients, 734–738
        chest tube removal after, topical analgesia for, 719–722
        defibrillation methods for, 738–745
        hemodynamic measurements after, 746–750
        pericardial tamponade after, electrocardiography in, 775–776
        preoperative hepatic venous flow measurement in, 751–758
        ventricular fibrillation in, defibrillation methods for, 738–745
        Cardiac tamponade
        after cardiac surgery, electrocardiography in, 775–776
        intraoperative, in liver transplantation, rescue echocardiography in, 364–366
        Cardiogenic shock, 97–108
        after CABG surgery, echocardiographic-assisted management of, 772–774
        diagnosis of, 97
        etiology of, 98
        hemodynamic changes in, 97–98
        systemic inflammatory response syndrome and, 98
        transesophageal echocardiography in, 406–408
        treatment of, 98–105
        intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in, 98–99
        pharmacologic, 99–105
        primary, 98
        Cardioprotection, sodium hydrogen ion exchange inhibitors for, 565–569, 570–576
        Cardiopulmonary bypass
        blood pressure monitoring in, in axillary artery cannulation, 665–666
        capillary leak after, 188–192
        cognitive dysfunction after, statins for, 294–298
        fentanyl concentrations in, in pediatric patients, 316–321
        glucose control during, 201–208
        hemostatic factors levels during, 459–467
        heparin-bonded circuits for, 608–611
        hyperthermia after, 423–425, 426–429
        infections after, transfusions and, 430–434
        inflammatory response in, xenon effects on, 488–493
        isoflurane requirements in, monitoring of, with bispectral index, 485–487
        laboratory value perturbations after, 19–25
        left ventricular relaxation after, milrinone vs. epinephrine for, 334–339
        length of stay after, vs. off-pump CABG surgery, 26–31
        normothermic, in moyamoya disease, 499–500
        for percutaneous coronary interventions, 501–504
        phenoxybenzamine vs. sodium nitroprusside for, in pediatric patients, 54–59
        with thoracic epidural anesthesia, 300–305
        weaning from, levosimendan for, 345–349
        Carotid artery disease, stroke prevention in
        carotid angioplasty and stenting for, 539–541
        endarterectomy for, 542–545
        Catecholamines, for cardiogenic shock, 99–101
        Catheter(ization)
        cardiac, EMLA cream for, in pediatric patients, 642–645
        intrapleural, for postoperative analgesia, 261–262
        pulmonary artery
        for hemodynamic measurements, after cardiac surgery, 746–750
        kinking of, in robotic surgery, 548–550
        Caudal anesthesia, for cardiac surgery, in pediatric patients, 734–738
        Central venous catheter, tension hydrothorax from, 512–515
        Central venous pressure, monitoring of, after cardiac surgery, methods for, 746–750
        Cerebrospinal fluid drainage, in aortic aneurysm repair, 392–399
        Charles Bonnet syndrome, after CABG surgery, 217–219
        Chest tube removal, topical analgesia for, 719–722
        Cisatracurium, for fast-track CABG surgery, 49–53
        Clonidine, for fast-track CABG surgery, 49–53
        Coagulation disorders
        in afibrinogenemia, cardiac surgery in, 109–117
        in CABG surgery, with cardiopulmonary bypass, 19–25
        in cardiac surgery, genetic factors in, 385–386
        in Sneddon syndrome, mitral valve replacement in, 661–664
        volume expanders and, 358–361
        Codeine, for postoperative pain, in CABG surgery, 714–718
        Cognitive dysfunction
        in cardiac surgery, genetic factors in, 384–385
        after cardiopulmonary bypass, statins for, 294–298
        Congenital heart defects, repair of
        caudal anesthesia for, 734–738
        combined aortic stenosis and patent ductus arteriosus, 785–786
        complex arterial switch, 322–328
        fentanyl for, 316–321
        Fontan procedure in, 612–619
        ketamine for, 329–333
        phenoxybenzamine vs. sodium nitroprusside for, 54–59
        Port-Access in, 626–629
        subglottic stenosis after, 367–369
        with β-thalassemia major, 93–96
        troponin I assay in, in neonates, 620–625
        Coronary angioplasty, cardiopulmonary bypass for, 501–504
        Coronary artery(ies), fistula of, transesophageal echocardiography in, 777–780
        Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
        atrial fibrillation after, in elderly persons, 182–187
        autologous transfusions for, 589–596
        in Bartter’s syndrome, 373–376
        beta-blockers for, late outcomes and, 237–241
        capillary leak after, 188–192
        cardiogenic shock after, echocardiographic-assisted management of, 772–774
        cognitive dysfunction after, statins for, 294–298
        complications of, in elderly persons, 583–588
        defibrillation in, biphasic vs. monophasic, 738–745
        desflurane-fentanyl for, 597–602
        fentanyl for
        with desflurane, 597–602
        hemodynamic effects of, 197–200
        with midazolam, 597–602
        glucose control during, 201–208
        grafts for, stellate ganglion blockade effects on, 729–733
        hemodynamic measurements after, 746–750
        heparin-bonded circuits for, 608–611
        infections after, 430–434
        laboratory value perturbations after, 19–25
        left ventricular relaxation after, milrinone vs. epinephrine for, 334–339
        length of stay after, 26–31
        midazolam-fentanyl for, 597–602
        minimally-invasive, intrathecal morphine for, 40–43
        myocardial ischemia after, troponin I assay in, 288–293
        normobaric hyperoxia in, cardiac index reduction in, 173–175
        off-pump
        anesthesia techniques for, 32–38
        atrial fibrillation in, magnesium supplementation for, 723–729
        cardiac output monitoring in, 160–164
        hemodynamic measurements after, 746–750
        hepatocellular damage attenuation by, 603–607
        hyperthermia after, 423–425, 426–429
        immediate extubation after, 282–287
        length of stay after, 26–31
        morphine for, 708–713
        myocardial ischemia in, reduction of, 667–677
        neurologic disorders after, 193–196
        remifentanil for, 708–713
        resource utilization in, in elderly persons, 583–588
        subtotal thyroidectomy with, 79–82
        vein graft patency after, 11–18
        patent foramen ovale diagnosis during, 150–154
        postoperative pain in
        acetaminophen for, 306–309
        magnesium sulfate for, 714–718
        morphine for, 708–713
        NSAIDs for, 714–718
        opioids for, 714–718
        remifentanil for, 708–713
        preoperative anticoagulants for, risk/benefit of, 1–3, 4–10
        preoperative hepatic venous flow measurement in, 751–758
        resource utilization in, in elderly persons, 583–588
        sepsis after, immunoglobulins for, 440–445
        thoracic epidural anesthesia for, prospective audit of, 44–48
        visual hallucinations after, 217–219
        Corticosteroids, for cardiopulmonary bypass
        evidence against, 255–258
        evidence for, 242–249
        Cystic fibrosis, double-lung transplantation in, pulmonary vein thrombosis in, 225–227
        Cytokines, in cardiac surgery, polymorphisms of, 381–384
        Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, for thoracic aortic surgery, outcomes of, 446–452
        Defibrillation, for cardiac surgery, biphasic vs. monophasic, 738–745
        Delirium, after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, for thoracic aortic surgery, 446–452
        Desflurane, for CABG surgery, 597–602
        Dexmedetomidine, for postoperative pain, in thoracotomy, 630–635
        Diabetes mellitus, glucose control in, during cardiac surgery, 201–208
        Diastolic dysfunction, in elderly persons, 228–236
        clinical implications of, 230–231
        diagnosis of, 230
        management of, 231–234
        pathophysiology of, 228–230
        physiology of, 228
        Diastolic function, in aortic aneurysm repair, aortic cross-clamping and, 165–172
        Diclofenac, for postoperative pain, in CABG surgery, 714–718
        Diphasic defibrillation, for cardiac surgery, 738–745
        Dissection, aortic, paroxysmal sympathetic storms after, 654–655
        Dobutamine
        for cardiogenic shock, 100–101
        for stress echocardiography, in risk assessment, 520–528
        Dopamine, for cardiogenic shock, 100–101
        Dopexamine, for cardiogenic shock, 100–101
        Doppler studies
        of arterial grafts, in stellate ganglion block, 729–733
        in hemodynamic monitoring, after cardiac surgery, 746–750
        in hepatic venous flow, before cardiac surgery, 751–758
        in interatrial septum, 146–149
        in left ventricular relaxation, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 334–339
        in preoperative hepatic venous flow measurement in, 751–758
        Double arterial switch, outcome of, 322–328
        Dysphagia lusoria, due to right aberrant subclavian artery, 86–89
        Echocardiography
        dobutamine stress, in risk assessment, 520–528
        transesophageal. See Transesophageal echocardiography
        transgastric, artifacts in, with papillary anomaly, 126–127
        transthoracic, portable device for, 155–159
        Editorials
        hyperthermia after cardiac surgery, 423–425
        immediate extubation in off-pump CABG surgery, 279–281
        intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography, 139
        postoperative pain in cardiac surgery, 705–707
        preoperative anticoagulant risk/benefit, 1
        sodium hydrogen ion exchange inhibitors, 565–569
        Elderly persons
        atrial fibrillation in, after cardiac surgery, 182–187
        CABG in, resource utilization and, 583–588
        diastolic dysfunction in, review of, 228–236
        Electrocardiography, after aortic cross-clamp release, 810–811
        Embolism, air, ventricular, after cardiac surgery, 406–408
        EMLA cream, for cardiac catheterization, in pediatric patients, 642–645
        Emphysema, one-lung ventilation in, arterial oxygen pressure, 479–484
        Endarterectomy, carotid, for stroke prevention, 542–545
        Endocarditis
        infectious, surgery for, outcome of, 435–439
        marantic, surgery for, in afibrinogenemia, 109–117
        transesophageal echocardiography in, 646–649
        tricuspid valve, with pacemaker infection, 505–507
        Endotracheal intubation, selective left bronchial, in pediatric patients, 636–641
        Endovascular repair, anesthesiologist needed for
        evidence against, 806–809
        evidence for, 802–805
        Enoxaparin, preoperative, risk/benefit of, 4–10
        Epidural anesthesia
        lumbar, for post-thoracotomy pain, 468–474
        thoracic
        for aortic valve surgery, extubation after, 176–181
        for CABG surgery, off-pump, 32–38
        for cardiac surgery
        with cardiopulmonary bypass, 300–305
        prospective audit of, 44–48
        for esophagectomy, 350–357
        for mitral valve surgery, anticoagulation and, 768–771
        for thoracotomy, 630–635
        acetaminophen with, 475–478
        for postoperative pain, 787–794
        Epinephrine
        for cardiogenic shock, 100–101
        left ventricular relaxation effects of, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 334–339
        Errata, incorrect departmental affiliations in Vol. 19, No. 3, page 350, 563
        Esophagectomy, postoperative analgesia for, 350–357
        Esophagus
        injury of, in transesophageal echocardiography, 141–146
        stricture of, transesophageal echocardiography in, 209–211
        Etomidate, for CABG surgery, fast-track, 49–53
        Extracorporeal circulation, with closed system, for atrial septal defect closure, 656–658
        Extubation, timing of
        after aortic valve surgery, vs. analgesia type, 176–181
        after off-pump CABG surgery, 282–287
        after pediatric cardiac surgery, caudal anesthesia and, 734–738
        Factor V Leiden, thrombosis in, 385
        Fast-track anesthesia
        for aortic valve surgery, vs. analgesia type, 176–181
        for CABG surgery
        general with spinal, 49–53
        length of stay and, 26–31
        minimally invasive, 40–43
        Femoral artery, cannulation of, in pediatric patients, 642–645
        Femoral nerve block, with sciatic nerve block, for infrainguinal bypass surgery, 220–221
        Fentanyl
        for CABG surgery, 597–602
        concentrations of, in cardiopulmonary bypass, in pediatric patients, 316–321
        for congenital heart defect repair, in pediatric patients, 60–66
        pKa of, at body temperature extremes, 759–762
        saphenous vein effects of, 197–200
        Fibrin glue, for coronary artery fistula correction, migration of, 693–694
        Filter, vena cava, guidewire for, retrieval of, 362–363
        Fistula, coronary artery
        correction of, fibrin glue migration in, 693–694
        transesophageal echocardiography in, 777–780
        Fontan procedure, without cardiopulmonary bypass, 612–619
        Foramen ovale, patent. See Patent foramen ovale
        Foreign body, in airway, removal of, in pediatric patients, 90–92
        Fresh frozen plasma, for CABG surgery, infections and, 430–434
        Gastrointestinal system complications, in transesophageal echocardiography, 141–146
        General anesthesia, for CABG surgery
        fast-track, 49–53
        off-pump, 32–38
        Genetic factors, in cardiac surgical outcomes, 379–391
        atrial fibrillation, 384
        cardiac transplantation rejection and, 386–387
        functional genomics approaches to, 380–381
        inflammation and, 381–382
        neurocognitive dysfunction and, 384–385
        polymorphisms in, 380
        principles of, 379–380
        sepsis and, 382–384
        vascular thrombosis and, 385–386
        Glucose control
        during cardiac surgery, 201–208
        tight
        evidence against, 689–690
        evidence for, 684–688
        Glue, for coronary artery fistula correction, migration of, 693–694
        Grafts
        aortic valve, thrombosis of, in pregnancy, 222–224
        CABG surgery
        fentanyl effects on, 197–200
        patency of, 11–18
        stellate ganglion blockade effects on, 729–733
        Guidewire, for vena cava filter, retrieval of, 362–363
        Hallucinations, visual, closed-eye, after CABG surgery, 217–219
        Halothane, myocardial calcium cycling and, 340–344
        Hanhart syndrome, intraoperative oxygen desaturation in, 546–547
        Heart
        diastolic dysfunction of, in elderly persons, 228–232
        transplantation of, rejection of, genetic factors in, 386–387
        Heart failure, contractility in, remifentanil effects on, 763–767
        Heart rate
        monitoring of, after cardiac surgery, methods for, 746–750
        normobaric hyperoxia effects on, after CABG surgery, 173–175
        Hematology, after CABG surgery, with cardiopulmonary bypass, 19–25
        Hematoma, in thoracic epidural anesthesia, anticoagulation and, 768–771
        Hemodilution, in cardiopulmonary bypass, hemostatic factors levels and, 459–467
        Hemodynamics
        in atrial fibrillation, after cardiac surgery, in elderly persons, 182–187
        in CABG surgery, fentanyl combination effects on, 597–602
        after cardiac surgery, measurement of, 746–750
        normobaric hyperoxia effects on, after CABG surgery, 173–175
        Hemorrhage. See Bleeding
        Hemostasis, for thoracic aortic surgery, 453–458
        Heparin
        coating cardiopulmonary bypass circuits, 608–611
        preoperative, risk/benefit of, 1–3, 4–10
        thrombocytopenia due to, genetic factors in, 385–386
        Hepatic venous flow measurement, before cardiac surgery, 751–758
        Hespan, coagulation effects of, 358–361
        Hextend, coagulation effects of, 358–361
        Hydrothorax, tension, from central venous catheter, 512–515
        Hydroxyethyl starch, coagulation effects of, 358–361
        Hypercoagulability, in off-pump CABG surgery, graft patency and, 11–18
        Hyperglycemia
        control of, during cardiac surgery, 201–208
        tight control of
        evidence against, 689–690
        evidence for, 684–688
        Hypertension, pulmonary, inhaled prostaglandins vs. nitric oxide for, 400–405
        Hyperthermia
        after cardiac surgery, 423–425, 426–429
        fentanyl pKa and, 759–762
        Hypokalemia, in Bartter’s syndrome, cardiac surgery in, 373–376
        Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, repair of, troponin I assay in, in neonates, 620–625
        Hypothermia
        fentanyl pKa and, 759–762
        for thoracic aortic surgery, outcomes of, 446–452
        Hypothyroidism, atrial fibrillation in, after cardiac surgery, in elderly persons, 182–187
        Immunoglobulin(s), for sepsis, after cardiac surgery, 440–445
        Infants
        cardiac surgery in, ketamine for, 329–333
        cardiopulmonary bypass for, fentanyl concentrations in, 316–321
        congenital heart defect repair in, phenoxybenzamine vs. sodium nitroprusside for, 54–59
        pacemaker implantation in, for atrioventricular block, 212–216
        selective left bronchial intubation in, 636–641
        Infections. See also Sepsis
        after cardiac surgery, transfusions and, 430–434
        Infectious endocarditis, surgery for, outcome of, 435–439
        Inflammation
        in cardiac surgery
        genetic factors in, 381–382
        ketamine effects on, 329–333
        in cardiopulmonary bypass, 250–251
        xenon effects on, 488–493
        Infrainguinal bypass surgery, combined sciatic and femoral nerve blocks for, 220–221
        Inotropic drugs, for cardiogenic shock, 101–103
        Insulin
        for glucose control
        during cardiac surgery, 201–208
        evidence against, 689–690
        evidence for, 684–688
        for myocardial protection, in off-pump CABG surgery, 671
        Intensive care, noncardiologist echocardiography in, 155–159
        Interatrial septum, transesophageal echocardiography in, 146–149
        Interleukin(s), in cardiac surgery
        ketamine effects on, 329–333
        polymorphisms of, 381–384, 386–387
        Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation
        balloon rupture during, in pediatric patients, 516–519
        for cardiogenic shock, 98–99
        misplacement of, 259–260
        Intubation, endotracheal. See Endotracheal intubation
        Ischemia, myocardial, cardiogenic shock in, treatment of, 97–108
        Ischemic preconditioning, in off-pump CABG surgery, 671–672
        Isoflurane
        for CABG surgery
        fast-track, 49–53
        off-pump, 708–713
        for cardiopulmonary bypass, monitoring of, with bispectral index, 485–487
        Jugular vein
        internal, cannulation of, ultrasound guidance for, 310–315
        puncture of, airway obstruction in, 659–660
        Ketamine, for congenital heart defect repair, 329–333
        Ketobemidone, for postoperative pain, in CABG surgery, 306–309
        Kidney
        dysfunction of
        after cardiopulmonary bypass, 188–192
        after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, for thoracic aortic surgery, 446–452
        fentanyl combination effects on, 597–602
        Lactated Ringer’s solution, coagulation effects of, 358–361
        Laryngeal nerve injury, in mitral valve replacement, 83–85
        Lasers, in endobronchial treatment
        in bronchoscopy suite, 118–120
        in operating room, 121–122
        Length of stay
        after CABG surgery, off-pump vs. on-pump, 26–31
        after pediatric cardiac surgery, caudal anesthesia and, 734–738
        Letters to the Editor
        Arndt endobronchial balloon cuff detachment, 273–274
        bispectral index for aortic arch occlusion diagnosis, 275–276
        bleeding after off-pump vs. on-pump CABG surgery, 700–701
        cardiac arrest due to tension pneumothorax, 135–136
        cardiac surgery in factor XII deficiency, 419–420
        coagulation studies performed on arterial catheter samples, 702–703
        coagulation system response to cardiopulmonary bypass, 701–702
        embolectomy catheter for one-lung ventilation, 270–272
        end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring, 133–134
        fire during tracheobronchopleural fistula repair, 556–557
        glycemic control in intensive care, 416–417
        internal jugular vein cannulation in pediatric patients, 559–561
        intrathecal morphine for minimally invasive CABG surgery, 816–818
        milrinone for pulmonary hypertension, 134–135
        mitral stenosis in pregnancy, 277–278
        off-pump CABG surgery, 416
        one-lung isolation with double-balloon blocker technique, 561–562
        oximetry readings in congenital heart disease, 558–559
        phenoxybenzamine-nitroglycerin combination in, 274–275
        pneumothorax after pneumonectomy, 557–558
        pulmonary dysfunction in off-pump vs. on-pump CABG surgery, 703
        reduction of postoperative atrial fibrillation, 816
        superior vena cava cannula obstruction, 420–421
        thoracic epidural with general anesthesia, 417–419
        thoracic sympathectomy in one-lung ventilation, 704–705
        wire-guided endobronchial blocker for one-lung ventilation, 136–138
        Levosimendan
        for cardiogenic shock, 101–103
        for diastolic dysfunction, in elderly persons, 233
        inotropic effects of, 345–349
        Lipomatous hypertrophy, of atrial septum, transesophageal echocardiography in, 146–149
        Lipopolysaccharides, in cardiac surgery, polymorphisms of, 382
        Liver
        fentanyl combination effects on, 597–602
        off-pump CABG surgery effects on, 603–607
        transplantation of, pericardial tamponade during, rescue transesophageal echocardiography in, 364–366
        Liver function tests, after CABG surgery, with cardiopulmonary bypass, 19–25
        L-NAME and L-NMMA, for cardiogenic shock, 104–105
        Lobectomy
        dexmedetomidine with epidural analgesia for, 630–635
        after myocardial infarction with stenting, procedural risks in, 795–801
        Local anesthesia, with sedation, for endovascular repair, 806–809
        Lumbar epidural anesthesia, for post-thoracotomy pain, 468–474
        Lung
        dysfunction of, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 188–192
        surgery on
        dexmedetomidine with epidural analgesia for, 630–635
        after myocardial infarction with stenting, procedural risks in, 795–801
        transesophageal echocardiography of, 242–249
        transplantation of, sequential-double, pulmonary vein thrombosis after, 225–227
        Lusitropic effects, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 334–339
        Lymphangioma, mediastinal, preoperative aspiration of, 781–784
        Magnesium
        for atrial fibrillation, in CABG surgery, 723–729
        for postoperative pain, in CABG surgery, 714–718
        Mammary artery grafts, internal, for CABG surgery, stellate ganglion blockade effects on, 729–733
        Mediastinitis, after CABG surgery, transfusions and, 430–434
        Mediastinoscopy, hemorrhage during, 678–683
        Mediastinum, cystic mass in, aspiration of, before definitive surgery, 781–784
        Methylprednisolone, for cardiopulmonary bypass, 255–258
        Microalbuminuria, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 188–192
        Midazolam, for CABG surgery, 597–602
        MIDCAB (coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, minimally invasive), intrathecal morphine for, 40–43
        Milrinone, left ventricular relaxation effects of, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 334–339
        Mini-extracorporeal circulation, for atrial septal defect closure, 656–658
        Minimally invasive surgery, for congenital heart defects, 626–629
        Minimally invasive surgery CABG, intrathecal morphine for, 40–43
        Mitral valve
        endocarditis of, transesophageal echocardiography in, 646–649
        regurgitation of, due to cleft, 123–125
        repair of
        pericardial tamponade after, 775–776
        thoracic epidural anesthesia for, anticoagulation and, 768–771
        replacement of
        autologous transfusions for, 589–596
        in Sneddon syndrome, 661–664
        vocal cord dysfunction after, 83–85
        Monophasic defibrillation, for cardiac surgery, 738–745
        Morphine
        for CABG surgery, fast-track, 49–53, 708–713
        for esophagectomy, 350–357
        intrathecal, for minimally-invasive CABG surgery, 40–43, 708–713
        for postoperative pain
        in aortic valve surgery, 176–181
        in CABG surgery, 708–713
        in thoracotomy, 468–474
        Mortality
        in CABG surgery, in elderly persons, 583–588
        after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, for thoracic aortic surgery, 446–452
        in infectious endocarditis surgery, 435–439
        Moyamoya diseases, cardiopulmonary bypass in, 499–500
        Myocardial infarction
        after CABG surgery, echocardiographic-assisted management of, 772–774
        cardiogenic shock in, treatment of, 97–108
        preoperative, risk for, vs. postoperative bleeding, 1–3
        right ventricular failure in, transesophageal echocardiography in, 406–408
        thoracotomy after, procedural risks in, 795–801
        Myocardial ischemia
        in CABG surgery, troponin I assay in, 288–293
        in noncardiac surgery, troponin I assay in, 577–582
        in off-pump CABG surgery, reduction of, 667–677
        perioperative, beta-blockers for, late outcomes and, 237–241
        sodium hydrogen ion exchange inhibitors for, 565–569, 570–576
        vascular surgery in, with positive stress tests, 494–498
        Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, for risk assessment, 521
        Myocardium
        calcium cycling patterns in, anesthesia effects on, 340–344
        contractility of, remifentanil effects on, 763–767
        Myxoma, atrial, infection of, septic shock in, 508–511
        Needle-guided ultrasonography, for internal jugular vein cannulation, 310–315
        Neonates
        cardiac surgery in, troponin elevation in, 620–625
        pacemaker implantation in, for atrioventricular block, 212–216
        Nesiritide, for cardiogenic shock, 104
        Neurologic disorders. See also Stroke
        in aortic aneurysm repair, 650–653
        in CABG surgery, off-pump, 193–196
        in thoracic epidural anesthesia, for cardiac surgery, 44–48
        Neutrophils, in reperfusion injury, 670–671
        Nitric oxide, inhaled, for pulmonary vasodilation, 400–405
        Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, for cardiogenic shock, 104–105
        Nitroprusside, for cardiopulmonary bypass, in pediatric patients, 54–59
        Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for postoperative pain, in CABG surgery, 714–718
        Norepinephrine, for cardiogenic shock, 100–101
        Off-pump CABG surgery. See Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, off-pump
        One-lung ventilation
        arterial oxygen in, with emphysema vs. normal lung function, 479–484
        positive end-expiratory pressure effects on, 71–75
        selective left bronchial intubation in, in pediatric patients, 636–641
        Opioids. See also Morphine
        for postoperative pain
        in aortic valve surgery, 176–181
        in CABG surgery, 306–309, 714–718
        Outcomes
        of cardiac surgery, postoperative pain and, 705–707
        of infectious endocarditis surgery, 435–439
        of thoracic aortic surgery, with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, 446–452
        of vascular surgery with positive preoperative stress tests, 494–498
        Oxygen
        desaturation of, intraoperative, in Hanhart syndrome, 546–547
        partial pressure of, in one-lung ventilation, with emphysema vs. normal lung function, 479–484
        Oxygen therapy, after CABG surgery, hemodynamic effects of, 173–175
        Oxygenation, in one-lung ventilation, positive end-expiratory pressure effects on, 71–75
        Pacemaker implantation
        for atrioventricular block, in pediatric patients, 212–216
        sepsis after, 505–507
        temporary, dysfunction of, 377–378
        Pacing, after aortic cross-clamp release, 810–811
        Patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis with, 785–786
        Patent foramen ovale
        intraoperative diagnosis of, management of, 150–154
        transesophageal echocardiography in, 146–149
        Pediatric patients
        airway foreign body removal from, 90–92
        cardiac surgery in
        caudal anesthesia for, 734–738
        ketamine for, 329–333
        subglottic stenosis after, 367–369
        troponin elevation in, 620–625
        cardiopulmonary bypass for, fentanyl concentrations in, 316–321
        congenital heart defect repair in
        phenoxybenzamine vs. sodium nitroprusside for, 54–59
        remifentanil for, 60–66
        cystic mediastinal mass in, 781–784
        Fontan procedure for, without cardiopulmonary bypass, 612–619
        Hanhart syndrome in, intraoperative oxygen desaturation in, 546–547
        pacemaker implantation in, for atrioventricular block, 212–216
        patent ductus arteriosus with aortic stenosis in, 785–786
        Port-Access surgery in, 626–629
        ruptured intra-aortic balloon in, 516–519
        selective left bronchial intubation in, 636–641
        tetralogy of Fallot repair in, with β-thalassemia major, 93–96
        Percutaneous coronary interventions, cardiopulmonary bypass for, 501–504
        Pericardial tamponade
        after cardiac surgery, electrocardiography in, 775–776
        intraoperative, in liver transplantation, rescue transesophageal echocardiography in, 364–366
        Phenoxybenzamine, for cardiopulmonary bypass, in pediatric patients, 54–59
        Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, for cardiogenic shock, 101
        Pimobendan, for diastolic dysfunction, in elderly persons, 233
        PKa, of fentanyl, at body temperature extremes, 759–762
        Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, polymorphisms of, 385
        Platelet(s)
        dysfunction of, genetic factors in, 385
        function of, after off-pump CABG surgery, 11–18
        transfusion of, for CABG surgery, infections and, 430–434
        Platelet inhibitors, preoperative, risk/benefit of, 1–3, 4–10
        Pleura, catheter in, for postoperative analgesia, 261–262
        Pneumonectomy, dexmedetomidine with epidural analgesia for, 630–635
        Pneumonia, after CABG surgery, transfusions and, 430–434
        Pneumothorax, tension, in Hanhart syndrome, 546–547
        Port-Access cardiac surgery, in pediatric patients, 626–629
        Positive end-expiratory pressure, in one-lung ventilation, 71–75
        Postoperative pain
        in aortic valve surgery, 176–181
        in CABG surgery
        acetaminophen for, 306–309
        intrathecal morphine for, 40–43, 708–713
        magnesium sulfate for, 714–718
        NSAIDs with opioids for, 714–718
        remifentanil for, 708–713
        spinal, 49–53
        thoracic epidural anesthesia for, 32–38
        in cardiac surgery, 705–707
        in esophagectomy, 350–357
        intrapleural catheter for, 261–262
        in thoracic surgery
        acetaminophen with thoracic epidural analgesia for, 475–478
        dexmedetomidine with epidural analgesia for, 630–635
        lumbar epidural agents for, 468–474
        preemptive epidural analgesia for, 787–794
        preoperative rofecoxib for, 67–70
        Potassium channels, fentanyl effects on, 197–200
        Prilocaine, for cardiac catheterization, in pediatric patients, 642–645
        Prostaglandins, inhaled, for pulmonary vasodilation, 400–405
        Pulmonary artery catheter
        for hemodynamic measurements, after cardiac surgery, 746–750
        kinking of, in robotic surgery, 548–550
        Pulmonary artery pressure, monitoring of, after cardiac surgery, methods for, 746–750
        Pulmonary function
        after cardiopulmonary bypass, 188–192
        transesophageal echocardiography in, 242–249
        Pulmonary hypertension, inhaled prostaglandins vs. nitric oxide for, 400–405
        Pulmonary valve, atresia of, Fontan procedure for, without cardiopulmonary bypass, 612–619
        Pulmonary vein, thrombosis of, after sequential double-lung transplantation, 225–227
        Pulse contour analysis, for cardiac output monitoring, in off-pump CABG surgery, 160–164
        Radial artery grafts, for CABG surgery, stellate ganglion blockade effects on, 729–733
        Rejection, of heart transplant, genetic factors in, 386–387
        Remifentanil
        for congenital heart defect repair, in pediatric patients, 60–66
        for fast-track CABG surgery, 49–53
        heart contractility and, 763–767
        for postoperative pain, in CABG surgery, 708–713
        Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
        in Bartter’s syndrome, cardiac surgery in, 373–376
        in reperfusion injury, 671
        Resource utilization, in CABG surgery
        in elderly persons, 583–588
        off-pump vs. on-pump, 26–31
        Ringer’s solution, coagulation effects of, 358–361
        Risk assessment, dobutamine stress echocardiography in, 520–528
        Robotic surgery, catheter sheath kinking in, 548–550
        Rofecoxib, preoperative, for postoperative thoracotomy pain, 67–70
        Saline solutions, coagulation effects of, 358–361
        Saphenous vein graft
        fentanyl effects on, 197–200
        patency of, in off-pump CABG surgery, 11–18
        Sciatic nerve block, with femoral nerve block, for infrainguinal bypass surgery, 220–221
        Scintigraphy, myocardial perfusion, for risk assessment, 521
        Sedation, with local anesthesia, for endovascular repair, 806–809
        Seizures, after aortic dissection, 654–655
        Senning/Mustard procedure plus Rastelli, outcome of, 322–328
        Sepsis
        after cardiac surgery
        genetic factors in, 382–384
        immunoglobulins for, 440–445
        in infected atrial myxoma, 508–511
        from pacemaker and tricuspid valve endocarditis, 505–507
        Shock
        cardiogenic
        after CABG surgery, echocardiographic-assisted management of, 772–774
        perioperative treatment of, 97–108
        septic, in infected atrial myxoma, 508–511
        Shunt
        with atrial septal aneurysm, transesophageal echocardiography in, 529–538
        left-to-right, repair of, remifentanil for, 60–66
        Sneddon syndrome, mitral valve replacement in, 661–664
        Sodium hydrogen ion exchange inhibitors
        for cardioprotection, 565–569, 570–576
        for myocardial protection, in off-pump CABG surgery, 671
        SonoHeart, evaluation of, 155–159
        Spinal analgesia, for CABG surgery, 49–53
        Staphylococcus, in infective endocarditis, surgery for, 435–439
        Statins, for cognitive dysfunction, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 294–298
        Stellate ganglion block, effects on arterial grafts, 729–733
        Stents, in coronary artery disease
        with carotid angioplasty, for stroke prevention, 539–541
        thoracic surgery after, procedural risks in, 795–801
        Stiff person syndrome, cardiac surgery in, 370–372
        Stomach, injury of, in transesophageal echocardiography, 141–146
        Streptococcus, in infective endocarditis, surgery for, 435–439
        Stress echocardiography, dobutamine, in risk assessment, 520–528
        Stress test, preoperative, vascular surgery after, results of, 494–498
        Stroke
        in aortic aneurysm repair, 650–653
        after CABG surgery, off-pump, 193–196
        after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, for thoracic aortic surgery, 446–452
        postoperative, anticoagulation and, 768–771
        prevention of, in carotid artery disease
        carotid angioplasty and stenting for, 539–541
        endarterectomy for, 542–545
        Stroke index, normobaric hyperoxia effects on, after CABG surgery, 173–175
        Subarachnoid hemorrhage, in aortic aneurysm repair, 650–653
        Subclavian artery, right, aberrant, dysphagia lusoria due to, 86–89
        Subglottic stenosis, after congenital heart defect repair, 367–369
        Sympathetic nervous system, dysfunction of, after aortic dissection, 654–655
        Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
        in cardiac surgery
        genetic factors in, 382
        ketamine effects on, 329–333
        cardiogenic shock and, 98
        after cardiopulmonary bypass, capillary leak and, 188–192
        Systemic right ventricle, correction of, outcome of, 322–328
        Systemic vascular resistance, normobaric hyperoxia effects on, after CABG surgery, 173–175
        Temperature, vs. fentanyl pKa, 759–762
        Tension hydrothorax, from central venous catheter, 512–515
        Tension pneumothorax, in Hanhart syndrome, 546–547
        Tetralogy of Fallot, repair of, with β-thalassemia major, 93–96
        Tezosentan, for cardiogenic shock, 103–104
        β-Thalassemia major, tetralogy of Fallot repair in, 93–96
        Thermodilution
        for cardiac output monitoring, in off-pump CABG surgery, 160–164
        for hemodynamic measurements, after cardiac surgery, 746–750
        Thoracic epidural anesthesia
        for aortic valve surgery, extubation after, 176–181
        for CABG surgery, off-pump, 32–38
        for cardiac surgery
        with cardiopulmonary bypass, 300–305
        prospective audit of, 44–48
        for esophagectomy, 350–357
        for mitral valve surgery, anticoagulation and, 768–771
        for thoracotomy, 630–635
        acetaminophen with, 475–478
        for postoperative pain, 787–794
        Thoracotomy
        after myocardial infarction with stenting, procedural risks in, 795–801
        postoperative pain management in
        acetaminophen with thoracic epidural analgesia for, 475–478
        lumbar epidural agents for, 468–474
        preemptive epidural analgesia for, 787–794
        preoperative rofecoxib for, 67–70
        Thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced, genetic factors in, 385–386
        Thromboelastography, volume expander effects on, 358–361
        Thromboembolism, in thoracic epidural anesthesia, anticoagulation and, 768–771
        Thrombosis
        aortic valve graft, in pregnancy, 222–224
        in cardiac surgery, genetic factors in, 385–386
        in marantic endocarditis, in afibrinogenemia, 109–117
        pulmonary vein, after sequential double-lung transplantation, 225–227
        saphenous vein graft, in off-pump CABG surgery, 11–18
        Thyroid hormone deficiency, atrial fibrillation in, after cardiac surgery, in elderly persons, 182–187
        Thyroidectomy, subtotal, off-pump CABG surgery with, 79–82
        Toborinone, for cardiogenic shock, 101
        Topical analgesia, for chest tube removal, 719–722
        Trachea, lesions of, off-pump CABG surgery with subtotal thyroidectomy in, 79–82
        Tramadol, epidural, for post-thoracotomy pain, 468–474
        Tranexamic acid, for thoracic aortic surgery, 453–458
        Transesophageal echocardiography
        in aortic aneurysm repair, 165–172
        in atrial septal aneurysm diagnosis, 529–538
        in cardiogenic shock, after CABG surgery, 772–774
        in coronary artery fistula, 777–780
        after coronary artery fistula correction, 693–694
        in endocarditis, 646–649
        in esophageal stricture, 209–211
        gastrointestinal complications of, 141–146
        in hemodynamic monitoring, after cardiac surgery, 746–750
        in interatrial septum, 146–149
        in pacemaker infections, 505–507
        in patent foramen ovale, 150–154
        in pericardial tamponade
        after cardiac surgery, 775–776
        intraoperative, 364–366
        in preoperative hepatic venous flow measurement in, 751–758
        in pulmonary disease, 242–249
        in pulmonary vein thrombosis, after double-lung transplantation, 225–227
        in right ventricular failure, 406–408
        Transfusion(s)
        autologous, allogeneic blood transfusion reduction with, 589–596
        for CABG surgery
        heparin-bonded circuits effects on, 608–611
        infections and, 430–434
        Transgastric echocardiography, artifacts in, with papillary anomaly, 126–127
        Transplantation
        heart, rejection of, genetic factors in, 386–387
        liver, pericardial tamponade during, rescue transesophageal echocardiography in, 364–366
        lung, sequential-double, pulmonary vein thrombosis after, 225–227
        Transposition of great arteries
        arterial switch for, outcome of, 322–328
        correction of, troponin I assay in, in neonates, 620–625
        Transpulmonary thermodilution, for cardiac output monitoring, in off-pump CABG surgery, 160–164
        Tricuspid valve
        atresia of, Fontan procedure for, without cardiopulmonary bypass, 612–619
        endocarditis of, with pacemaker infection, 505–507
        Triiodothyronine, deficiency of, atrial fibrillation in, after cardiac surgery, in elderly persons, 182–187
        Troponin I assay
        in cardiac surgery, in neonates, 620–625
        in myocardial ischemia
        after CABG surgery, 288–293
        in noncardiac surgery, 577–582
        Tube, chest, removal of, topical analgesia for, 719–722
        Tumor necrosis factor(s), in cardiac surgery, polymorphisms of, 381–384
        Ultrasonography, for internal jugular vein cannulation, 310–315
        Urinary tract infections, after CABG surgery, transfusions and, 430–434
        Valdecoxib, topical, for chest tube removal, 719–722
        Valvular heart disease. See also specific valves
        prosthetic valves for, intra-annular leak of, 691–692
        surgery for
        autologous transfusions for, 589–596
        sepsis after, immunoglobulins for, 440–445
        in stiff person syndrome, 370–372
        vocal cord dysfunction after, 83–85
        Vascular stent procedures, anesthesiologist needed for
        evidence against, 806–809
        evidence for, 802–805
        Vascular surgery, noncardiac
        with positive preoperative stress tests, results of, 494–498
        troponin screening in, 577–582
        zoniporide for, 570–576
        Vasoconstrictors, for cardiogenic shock, 104–105
        Vasodilators
        for cardiogenic shock, 103–104
        fentanyl as, in CABG surgery, 197–200
        pulmonary, inhaled prostaglandins vs. nitric oxide, 400–405
        Vena cava filter, guidewire for, retrieval of, 362–363
        Venous grafts, patency of, in off-pump CABG surgery, 11–18
        Ventilation, one-lung
        arterial oxygen in, with emphysema vs. normal lung function, 479–484
        positive end-expiratory pressure effects on, 71–75
        selective left bronchial intubation in, 636–641
        Ventricle(s)
        left
        air in, transesophageal echocardiography in, 406–408
        relaxation of, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 334–339
        right
        failure of, transesophageal echocardiography in, 406–408
        systemic, repair of, 322–328
        Ventricular assist devices
        aortic regurgitation after, 409–410
        intraoperative off-bypass management of, 76–78
        Ventricular fibrillation, in cardiac surgery, defibrillation methods for, 738–745
        Ventricular muscle, contractility of, remifentanil effects on, 763–767
        Visual hallucinations, closed-eye, after CABG surgery, 217–219
        Vocal cord dysfunction, after mitral valve replacement, 83–85
        Volume expanders, coagulation effects of, 358–361
        Wound infections, after CABG surgery, transfusions and, 430–434
        Xenon, in inflammatory response, in cardiopulmonary bypass, 488–493
        Zoniporide, for cardioprotection, 570–576