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Real-time Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography: The Matrix Revolution

Published:October 23, 2008DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2008.08.011
      THE ABILITY TO perform and interpret a comprehensive 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic (2D-TEE) examination is a cornerstone to the modern-day practice of cardiac anesthesia and is inherently linked to the subspecialty. As with most technologies, echocardiography has seen numerous advancements evolve over time. The most significant of these advances that have occurred over the course of the past 50 years includes the progression from 1 (spatial)-dimensional imaging (A- and M-mode) to that of 2-dimensional (2D) imaging, as is currently in use today. The introduction of Doppler technology has enabled the echocardiographer to not only obtain anatomic images (2D imaging) but physiologic information as well. Spectral Doppler is used to evaluate flow velocities, which, in turn, enable the calculation of pressure gradients and flow volumes. Color-flow Doppler, which facilitates the imaging of shunts, is used to map spatial blood flow movement. This capability improves the interpretation of valvular lesions and the recognition of turbulent flow patterns.

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