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Acute Cardiointestinal Syndrome Resulting From Postoperative Acute Biventricular Heart Failure

Published:February 12, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2022.02.011
      ACUTELY DECOMPENSATED HEART FAILURE (HF), if left untreated, causes organ hypoperfusion that can progress to irreversible and life-threatening multiorgan dysfunction. Cardiointestinal syndrome (CIS) is the result of both persistent venous congestion and hypoperfusion of the intestines as a result of biventricular HF.
      • Sundaram V
      • Fang JC.
      Gastrointestinal and liver issues in heart failure.
      These mechanisms contribute to perturbations in normal intestine function that ultimately result in intestinal bacteria product translocation into the bloodstream.
      • Sandek A
      • Swidsinski A
      • Schroedl W
      • et al.
      Intestinal blood flow in patients with chronic heart failure: A link with bacterial growth, gastrointestinal symptoms, and cachexia.
      This translocation causes inflammatory cytokine production and sepsis, which depress myocardial function and eventually lead to biventricular heart failure, multiorgan failure, and death.
      • Sandek A
      • Swidsinski A
      • Schroedl W
      • et al.
      Intestinal blood flow in patients with chronic heart failure: A link with bacterial growth, gastrointestinal symptoms, and cachexia.

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