Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated With Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors After Cardiac Surgery: A Review of Current Literature

      There is growing evidence to support the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the management of heart failure. As such, more patients undergoing cardiac surgery are on SGLT2-inhibitor therapy. Despite the numerous benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiac health, they can be associated with an increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis, often with normal glucose levels (euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis or EDKA), which potentially can be detrimental in this vulnerable patient population. In this narrative review, the authors discuss 17 papers that described EDKA in perioperative cardiac surgical patients. The authors discuss suggested preventative measures and management options, with a particular emphasis on raising the clinical awareness of the care teams toward this complication. SGLT2 inhibitor-induced EDKA is a medical emergency that can be difficult to identify in the postcardiac surgical patient due to the overlap of signs and symptoms with other frequent scenarios in these patients. A reduction in SGLT2 inhibitor-associated EDKA can be mitigated by the appropriate perioperative discontinuation of the medication, clinical awareness, and early investigation to diagnose the condition, with emphasis on serum β-hydroxybutyrate. Future quality improvement initiatives are needed to assist in reducing EDKA in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors in the perioperative surgical setting.

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