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Bispectral Index (BIS) Monitoring and Postoperative Delirium in Elderly Patients Undergoing Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis With Trial Sequential Analysis

      Objective

      To examine the effect of bispectral index (BIS)-guided anesthesia on the incidence of postoperative delirium (POD) in elderly patients undergoing surgery.

      Design

      A systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis (TSA).

      Setting

      In the operating room, postoperative anesthesia care units (PACU), and ward.

      Participants

      Elderly patients (>60 years old) undergoing surgery.

      Interventions

      The EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CENTRAL databases were searched systematically from their inception until December 2020 for randomized controlled trials comparing BIS and usual care or blinded BIS.

      Measurements and Main Results

      Ten trials (N = 3,891) were included for quantitative meta-analysis. In comparison to the control group, there was no significant difference in the incidence of POD in elderly patients randomized to BIS-guided anesthesia (odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% CI 0.47-1.08, I2 = 76%, p = 0.11, level of evidence = very low, TSA = inconclusive). The authors' review demonstrated that elderly patients with BIS-guided anesthesia were significantly associated with a lower incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.88, p = 0.006), extubation time (mean difference [MD] -3.38 minutes, 95% CI -4.38 to -2.39, p < 0.00001), time to eye opening (MD -2.17 minutes, 95% CI -4.21 to -0.14, p = 0.04), and time to discharge from the PACU (MD -10.77 minutes, 95% CI -11.31 to - 10.23, p < 0.00001).

      Conclusion

      The authors' meta-analysis demonstrated that BIS-guided anesthesia was not associated with a reduced incidence of POD, but it was associated with a reduced incidence of POCD and improved recovery parameters.

      Key Words

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