CASE 3—2013: Maldistribution of Cardioplegia Detected by Transesophageal Echocardiography During Minimally Invasive Cardiac SurgeryMINIMALLY INVASIVE cardiac surgery is becoming increasingly and has advantages, but it involves decreased surgical exposure. The authors report a case in which a minimally invasive approach to the aortic valve precluded manual palpation of the left ventricle during administration of antegrade cardioplegia. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed maldistribution of cardioplegia, with the solution entering the left ventricle and, subsequently, left atrium, through incompetent aortic and mitral valves.
Accessory AttachmentA 60-YEAR-OLD MAN with a past medical history significant for obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and a longstanding murmur presented with shortness of breath and fatigue with exertion over a period of 1 week. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed moderate aortic stenosis. A cardiac catheterization was performed and showed severe aortic stenosis (peak gradient of 70 mmHg and valve area of 0.64 cm2), single-vessel coronary artery disease (60%-70% occlusion of mid-left anterior descending artery), and dilation of the ascending aorta (5 cm).