Intraoperative Classification of Mitral Valve Dysfunction: The Role of the Anesthesiologist in Mitral Valve ReconstructionANESTHESIOLOGISTS cannot concentrate solely on advances made within the specialty, but must also keep up with developments occurring within the field of surgery because the surgical management of the patients partly determines the anesthetic management. Mitral valve disease and its surgical therapy represent a very dynamic area within the field of cardiac surgery. Thanks to better understanding of the anatomy of the mitral valve apparatus, pathophysiology of underlying disease processes, and improvements in surgical technique, a shift has taken place clearly favoring mitral valve repair over mitral valve replacement for regurgitant lesions.
Real-time Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography: The Matrix RevolutionTHE ABILITY TO perform and interpret a comprehensive 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic (2D-TEE) examination is a cornerstone to the modern-day practice of cardiac anesthesia and is inherently linked to the subspecialty. As with most technologies, echocardiography has seen numerous advancements evolve over time. The most significant of these advances that have occurred over the course of the past 50 years includes the progression from 1 (spatial)-dimensional imaging (A- and M-mode) to that of 2-dimensional (2D) imaging, as is currently in use today.