Correlation of 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional Echocardiographic Analysis to Surgical Measurements of the Tricuspid Valve Annular DiameterThis study sought to determine if 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography would more closely correspond to direct surgical measurements of the maximal tricuspid valve (TV) annular diameter than 2-dimensional (2D) measurements.
A Mitral Valve Mass: Tumor, Thrombus, or Vegetation?A 58-YEAR-OLD man developed transient monocular visual loss in the right lower quadrant of the left eye that fully resolved in less than 24 hours. He was afebrile and had no other symptoms. His known medical history included well-controlled arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia. He denied a history of cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, intravenous drug use, and thromboembolic disease. Medical evaluation included a carotid Doppler ultrasound that showed no abnormality, an unremarkable brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, an unremarkable ophthalmologic examination, and a normal white blood cell count.
Intraoperative Classification of Mitral Valve Dysfunction: The Role of the Anesthesiologist in Mitral Valve ReconstructionANESTHESIOLOGISTS cannot concentrate solely on advances made within the specialty, but must also keep up with developments occurring within the field of surgery because the surgical management of the patients partly determines the anesthetic management. Mitral valve disease and its surgical therapy represent a very dynamic area within the field of cardiac surgery. Thanks to better understanding of the anatomy of the mitral valve apparatus, pathophysiology of underlying disease processes, and improvements in surgical technique, a shift has taken place clearly favoring mitral valve repair over mitral valve replacement for regurgitant lesions.
Real-time Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography: The Matrix RevolutionTHE ABILITY TO perform and interpret a comprehensive 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic (2D-TEE) examination is a cornerstone to the modern-day practice of cardiac anesthesia and is inherently linked to the subspecialty. As with most technologies, echocardiography has seen numerous advancements evolve over time. The most significant of these advances that have occurred over the course of the past 50 years includes the progression from 1 (spatial)-dimensional imaging (A- and M-mode) to that of 2-dimensional (2D) imaging, as is currently in use today.